Composite materials are totally different established on their purpose: short-fibre reinforced thermoset plastics for large automobile body components, long-fibre reinforced thermoplastics for high-strength structural components, and woven roving’s for wind energy plants or filament windings for sleeves and pressure cylinders. They all have in common that they’re to be made within the most cost-effective method.
To fabricate these modern components, infrared heat or UV radiation are used because they quickly and homogeneously heat or cure them and in this way shorten process times.
Composites processing with Infrared Heat
Infrared heat cures thermosetting plastics and heats thermoplastics before welding, moulding or forming. Infrared radiation may be precisely adjusted to the product and the method. Advanced numerical methods like ray tracing and computational fluid dynamics facilitate produce the heating of huge surfaces homogenized.
Curing of thermosetting plastics
Heating of thermoplastics
Joining of layers of composite materials
Compacting of layers of composite materials
Preheating of composite materials prior to forming
Drying and Curing with UV technology
UV radiation is employed to cure glass-fibre reinforced resins, unsaturated polyesters and vinyl esters. The ultraviolet technique is independent of moisture and temperature, consistent and well manageable. The curing within seconds is particularly advantageous for the production of products that are moulded, pultruded or wound.
Shower and tub enclosures
Motor caravan and truck panels
Masts and poles
Composites processing with Infrared Heat
Infrared heat cures thermosetting plastics and heats thermoplastics before welding, moulding or forming. Infrared radiation may be exactly adjusted to the product and the method. Advanced numerical ways like ray tracing and machine fluid dynamics help produce the heating of large surfaces homogeneous.
Curing of thermosetting plastics
Heating of thermoplastics
Joining of layers of composite materials
Compacting of layers of composite materials
Preheating of composite materials prior to forming
Drying and Curing with UV technology
UV radiation is utilized to cure glass-fibre reinforced resins, unsaturated polyesters and vinyl esters. The UV technique is independent of moisture and temperature, consistent and well manageable. The curing among seconds is very advantageous for the production of products that are moulded, pultruded or wound.
Encapsulation involves the incorporation of food ingredients, enzymes, cells or different materials in small capsules. Applications for this method have increased within the food industry since the encapsulated materials may be protected against moisture, heat or different extreme conditions, so enhancing their stability and maintaining viability. Encapsulation in foods is also utilized to mask odours or tastes. Numerous techniques are used to make the capsules, including spray drying, spray chilling or spray cooling, extrusion coating, fluidized bed coating, liposome entrapment, coacervation, inclusion complexation, centrifugal extrusion and rotational suspension separation. Every of those techniques is discussed in this review. a large variety of foods is encapsulated–flavouring agents, acids bases, artificial sweeteners, colourants, and preservatives, leavening agents, antioxidants, agents with undesirable flavours, odours and nutrients, among others.
The use of encapsulation for sweeteners such as aspartame and flavours in chewing gum is well known. Fats, starches, dextrins, alginates, protein and lipid materials can be employed as encapsulating materials. Various methods exist to release the ingredients from the capsules. Release can be site-specific, stage-specific or signalled by changes in pH, temperature, irradiation or osmotic shock. In the food industry, the most common method is by solvent-activated release. The addition of water to dry beverages or cake mixes is an example. Liposomes have been applied in cheese-making, and its use in the preparation of food emulsions such as spreads, margarine and mayonnaise is a developing area. Most recent developments include the encapsulation of foods in the areas of controlled release, carrier materials, preparation methods and sweetener immobilization. New markets are being developed and current research is underway to reduce the high production costs and lack of food-grade materials.
The most important membrane and coating materials used for encapsulation are carrageenan, chitosan, sodium alginate, carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC), methylcellulose, cellulose acetate, polycarbonate, polysulfide, polyacrylate, collagen, Teflon, and phospholipids. Applying membranes that selectively allow analytes and products to permeate is a useful and precise technique; however, the biosensors based on this method usually have long response times. Membrane disruption caused by accumulation of side products is another disadvantage of this method.
Encapsulation can also be used to mask off-flavors. Iron supplements such as iron sulfate exhibit a typical unpleasant iron taste and color. These unwanted attributes could be masked using phospholipid-coated iron phosphate nanoparticles. The undesirable odor or flavor of soy products, sweeteners, and omega-3-fatty acids was reported to be significantly reduced using β-lactoglobulin nanoparticles or cyclodextrins for encapsulation. Nanoencapsulation has also been used bakeries in Western Australia, to mask the taste and odor of tuna fish oil, which is high in omega-3-fatty acids in bread. The delivery system releases the tuna fish oil only when reaching the stomach and hence the unpleasant taste of fish oil can be avoided. In addition, encapsulation extends shelf life of the omega-3-fatty acid-containing food products by protecting the polyunsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.
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Potash includes various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form. The name derives from pot ash, that refers to plant ashes or wood ash soaked in water during a pot that was the first means of manufacturing the product before the industrial Era. The word “potassium” is derived from “potash”.
Potash is made worldwide in amounts exceeding ninety million tonnes (40 million tonnes K2O equivalent) annually, largely to be used in fertilizer. Numerous types of fertilizer-potash constitute the one greatest industrial use of the component potassium within the world. Potassium was initial derived in 1807 by electrolysis of caustic potash (potassium hydroxide).
Importance of Potash
Many farmers are not getting the best from their grassland because of a lack of potash. Around 40% of grassland soil samples have below target K levels making them very responsive to added potash. Average applications of potash fertilizers to grassland have fallen by approximately 50% over the last two decades. This can result in costly penalties from under application through reduced yield and quality.
Part of the problem is that any under application may not be evident through deficiency symptoms or identifiable poor growth. Whilst Precision Farming techniques now provide arable farmers with increasingly sophisticated soil information for every part of every field, most grass farmers may be unaware of large differences in PK fertility within the same field. Zonal or hectare grid sampling for PK analysis can be a worthwhile check for grassland.
Whole farm forage yields and Dry Matter % are known with increasing precision, but assessment of individual field performance is often lacking though yields are not difficult to estimate, e.g. by counting bales or silage loads removed from the field.
Quantifying grass yield is of vital importance for both phosphate and potash because manure and fertilizer use need to be adjusted according to off take in the grass. A lack of yield measurement/estimation can also lead to inefficient manure use. There is frequently enormous scope to improve the effectiveness of manures, resulting in very valuable yield improvements or fertilizer cost savings.
New varieties and grass mixtures are constantly improving forage potential but this is not being realized in practice where potash supply is inadequate. This Cinderella input is regularly the limiting factor to grass performance.
Potash is essential for grass yield and high-quality feed value.
Potash is used to regulate the movement and storage of solutes throughout the plant, comparable to the blood system in animals or humans. This is clearly a very wide ranging and vital role, affecting nutrient uptake, photosynthesis, rate of growth and feed value of forage. These functions require larger amounts of total potash in the plant than any other nutrient including nitrogen. If adequate amounts are not present grass will not grow or yield as it should.
A strong relationship exists between nitrogen and potash in plants. The large and worthwhile growth response of grass to nitrogen is dependent upon a balanced supply of potash both to assist nitrogen uptake by the roots as nitrate, as well as supporting the conversion of this into complex proteins needed by animals. Potash is also very important in the microbiological fixation of nitrogen by root nodules in legumes. If clover is required to play a significant part in the sward, the supply of potash is of even greater importance.
In addition to its use as a fertilizer, potassium chloride is important in many industrialized economies, where it is used in aluminum recycling, by the chloralkali industry to produce potassium hydroxide, in metal electroplating, oil-well drilling fluid, snow and ice melting, steel heat-treating, in medicine as a treatment for hypokalemia, and water softening. Potassium hydroxide is used for industrial water treatment and is the precursor of potassium carbonate, several forms of potassium phosphate, many other potassic chemicals, and soap manufacturing. Potassium carbonate is used to produce animal feed supplements, cement, fire extinguishers, food products, photographic chemicals, and textiles. It is also used in brewing beer, pharmaceutical preparations, and as a catalyst for synthetic rubber manufacturing. Also combined with silica sand to produce potassium silicate, sometimes known as water glass, for use in paints and arc welding electrodes.
No substitutes exist for potassium as an important plant nutrient and as an essential nutritional requirement for animals and humans. Manure and glauconite (greensand) are low-potassium-content sources which will be profitably transported solely short distances to crop fields.
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Industrial waste is the waste created by industrial activity which includes any material that’s rendered useless during a manufacturing method such as that of factories, mills, and mining operations. kinds of industrial waste include dirt and gravel, masonry and concrete, scrap metal, oil, solvents, chemicals; scrap lumber, even vegetable matter from restaurants. Industrial waste could also be solid, semi-solid or liquid in form. It should be dangerous waste (some kinds of which are toxic) or non-hazardous waste. Industrial waste may pollute the nearby soil or adjacent water bodies, and can contaminate groundwater, lakes, streams, rivers or coastal waters. Industrial waste is commonly mixed into municipal waste, making accurate assessments difficult. an estimate for the United States goes as high as 7.6 billion a lot of industrial waste created annually, as of 2017. Most countries have enacted legislation to deal with the matter of industrial waste; however strictness and compliance regimes vary. Enforcement is usually a problem.
Classification of industrial waste and its treatment
Hazardous waste, chemical waste, industrial solid waste and municipal solid waste are classifications of wastes utilized by governments in several countries. Sewage treatment plants will treat some industrial wastes, i.e. those consisting of standard pollutants like biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Industrial wastes containing poisonous pollutants or high concentrations of different pollutants (such as ammonia) need specialized treatment systems.
Industrial wastes can be classified on the basis of their characteristics:
Waste in solid form, but some pollutants within are in liquid or fluid form, e.g. crockery industry or washing of minerals or coal.
Waste in dissolved and the pollutant is in liquid form, e.g. the dairy industry.
Many factories and most power plants are located near bodies of water to obtain large amounts of water for manufacturing processes or for equipment cooling. In the US, electric power plants are the largest water users. Other industries using large amounts of water are pulp and paper mills, chemical plants, iron and steel mills, petroleum refineries, food processing plants and aluminum smelters.
Many less-developed countries that are becoming industrialized do not yet have the resources or technology to dispose their wastes with minimal impacts on the environment. Both untreated and partially treated wastewater are commonly fed back into a near lying body of water. Metals, chemicals and sewage released into bodies of water directly affect marine ecosystems and the health of those who depend on the waters as food or drinking water sources. Toxins from the wastewater can kill off marine life or cause varying degrees of illness to those who consume these marine animals, depending on the contaminant. Metals and chemicals released into bodies of water affect the marine ecosystems.
Wastewater containing nutrients (nitrates and phosphates) often causes eutrophication which can kill off existing life in water bodies. Thermal pollution—discharges of water at elevated temperature after being used for cooling—can also lead to polluted water. Elevated water temperatures decrease oxygen levels, which can kill fish and alter food chain composition, reduce species biodiversity, and foster invasion by new Thermophillic species.
Solid and hazardous waste
Solid waste, usually known as municipal solid waste, generally refers to material that’s not hazardous. This class includes trash, rubbish and refuse; and should include materials like construction debris and yard waste. Hazardous waste generally has specific definitions, thanks to the lot of careful and sophisticated handling required of such wastes. Under us law, waste is also classified as hazardous based on certain characteristics: ignitability, reactivity, corrosivity and toxicity. Some sorts of hazardous waste are specifically listed in laws.
One of the most devastating effects of industrial waste is pollution. For several industrial processes, water is used which comes in-tuned with harmful chemicals. These chemicals might include organic compounds (such as solvents), metals, nutrients or radioactive material. If the waste product is discharged while not treatment, groundwater and surface water bodies—lakes, streams, rivers and coastal waters—can become polluted, with serious impacts on human health and therefore the environment. Drinking water sources and irrigation water used for farming is also affected. The pollutants might degrade or destroy habitat for animals and plants. In coastal areas, fish and different aquatic life is contaminated by untreated waste; beaches and different recreational areas is damaged or closed.
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Diamond films have distinctive mechanical, electrical, optical, and thermal properties, and a range of applications. In particular, the diamond is termed the ultimate semiconductor material for electronic devices that will operate at high power and high frequency. As the chemical bond of diamonds is extremely strong, diamond devices will work at high temperatures, as well as beneath strong chemical environments or in high-radiation conditions. At present, there are 2 main methods for synthesizing diamond crystals, high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) and chemical-vapor deposition (CVD). For the HPHT method, it is difficult to grow large single-crystal diamonds and the crystal size is mainly smaller than 10 × 10 mm2, while the CVD method is the more promising approach to produce large-size high-quality diamond films.
If the chemical reaction in CVD is initiated by microwave plasma then it is called Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD). A crucial issue for a roll-to-roll thin film cell production system is the deposition rate of the microcrystalline layer and this can be tackled using MPECVD. This technique has gained popularity in diamond and graphene fabrication. This paper discusses about the designing of an MPECVD chamber operated at 2.45 GHz of frequency using Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation. The design consists of a coaxial waveguide and a cylindrical chamber at the center connected using 4 slots in each direction. The placement of slot affects the resonant mode in the chamber. Hence the slot placements in the middle and the bottom positions of the plasma chamber produce the TE111and TM011mode inside the plasma chamber at 2.45 GHz, respectively.
MPCVD is another very important method that has been frequently used for diamond deposition. Here, microwave plasma is used to activate the hydrocarbon feed and dissociate molecular hydrogen. Typically, 2.45 GHz is used as excitation source. Microwave plasma oscillates electrons, which in turn produces ions by colliding with gas atoms and molecules. However, the deposition area is restricted for a microwave CVD reactor. Typical 2–3 cm substrates are used for deposition of diamond in an MPCVD reactor. The size of the plasma ball increases with increase in microwave power. It has been observed that intimate contact of the plasma ball with the substrate is not essential for diamond deposition by MPCVD technique. A substrate of ∼10 cm diameter may be coated uniformly with diamond without having the plasma ball in direct contact with the substrate.
Kerone Microwave Diamond CVD systems incorporate tunable resonant cavity technology offering proven diamond deposition capability with high efficiency and control.
Precise plasma control
Efficient energy coupling
Flexible processing options
Provent scale up performance
Uniform deposition & high rates
Fully integrated systems
Process development services
Clean room compatible
Integrated Systems for R&D and Production
Computer controlled with auto cycle profiling and integrated microwave, gas handling & vacuum modules
Remote position control of cavity tuning & substrate
Power option from 1.2 kW to 10kW 2.45 GHz
Process parameters from 20 to 00 Torr
Complete range of process gases
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Fish is an extremely nutritious food than meat and egg and it’s extremely perishable because of its high moisture content that is about 80th. Fish preservation is important immediately after catch to increase the shelf life of fish. Preservation methods helps to maintain the quality of fish for longer period of time, prevents spoilage and decomposition, retains its original nutritional contents and makes transportation and storage of fish easier. Fish preservation techniques vary with type, nature, size and condition of fish. Improper handling and process of fish results in immediate spoilage of fish ends up in poor quality. Conventional preservation techniques like chilling, freezing, drying and chemical preservation are widely being employed for fish preservation throughout the globe. Among the various preservation techniques drying of fish is the oldest preservation technique and drying means that preservation of fish by removing water from it through heating. Drying removes the moisture content up to a certain level to prevent microbial growth thereby provides greater shelf life, reduction in weight, volume, transportation and storage space. Two commonly used drying ways are natural and artificial drying. Natural drying includes sun drying, solar drying, wherever artificial drying includes microwave, fluidized bed, spouted bed, infrared, connective drying, desiccant drying, freeze drying, osmotic, vacuum drying, pulsed electric field, high hydrostatic pressure, superheated steam drying, heat pump and spray drying etc.
Natural drying methods are associated with disadvantages like contamination and damage by dirt, insects, rodents, birds and animals. Sun drying of fish often results in low quality products since drying is slow normally it takes five to seven days. Therefore it is necessary to choose an advanced method of drying to obtain good quality product. Artificial drying methods have advantages like less drying time, good quality drying, better process control, operational safety and higher capacity.
Drying involves the evaporation of moisture from the surface of the fish and the migration of moisture from inside the fish to the surface. Drying is affected by the movement of air over the surface of the fish as well as the temperature and humidity of that air. Sun drying of fish, with or without the addition of salt, is practiced in many tropical countries, and is a low cost form of preservation.
Advanced drying methods
Solar energy has been used all around the world to dry food products. Solar drying is use of equipment to collect the sun’s radiation in order to harness the radioactive. Energy for drying applications Good product quality can be retained with the control of radioactive heat. It is mainly used to dry products like grains, fruits, vegetables, meat and fish.
Fluidized Bed Drying
In fluidized bed drying (FBD) system, air is allowed to pass through the bed of solid material in the upward direction with the velocity greater than the settling rate of solid particles. It is mainly working on the fluidization of solid materials. Since hot air is introduced from bottom of the system at high pressure the solid particles which have to be dried will be in suspended state in a stream of air. Heat transfer is accomplished by direct contact between the solid material and hot air. Vaporized liquid is carried away by the hot air.
IR drying can be considered to be an artificial sun drying method and it can sustain throughout the day. Advantages of using IR for drying include: flexibility of operation, simplicity of the required equipment, fast response of heating and drying, easy installation to any drying chamber and low capital cost. It can be used for various food materials like grains, flour, vegetables, pasta, meat and fish.
Vacuum drying is a process in which materials are dried in a reduced pressure environment, which lowers the temperature required for rapid drying. Major advantages of vacuum drying are as follows: less energy is needed for drying, it is highly suitable for heat sensitive food materials, faster method than other drying methods, it retains integrity of materials etc. In general, vacuum drying is performed in combination with other drying techniques.
Superheated Steam Drying
In a superheated steam drying, the drying gas in a convective dryer is replaced with superheated steam. Superheated steam at certain pressure enters in drying chamber and removes the moisture from wet foods and the exhaust from the dryer is also superheated steam with a lower specific enthalpy.
Freeze drying or lyophilization is a dehydration process used to preserve a material and make it into more convenient for transport. It is a method of water removal from material by sublimation. This drying process is divided into three stages: pre-freezing of wet material, primary drying (sublimation of frozen water under vacuum) and secondary drying stage (desorption of residual found water from material). Freeze drying is initially freezing the material and then reducing the surrounding pressure to allow the frozen water in the material to sublimate directly from the solid phase to the gas phase. It is one of the best methods of water removal and results in a final product of much higher quality compared to any other drying technique.
Heat Pump Drying
A heat pump is a device that transports energy from a low temperature source to a higher temperature sink. This transfer requires an input of work which may be supplied mechanically as in a Vapour-compression cycle.
Electromagnetic energy of microwave and radio frequency (RF) can directly interact with foods to quickly raise center temperature since most of the food materials are dielectric materials and can store electric energy and convert it into heat. It is volumetric heating and quick raise of temperature is possible.
Advantages of dried fish:
Dried fish processed through sun drying or dehydration is highly concentrated fish compared to other preserved form of fish.
As water content becomes reduced so microbial activity cannot run at normal rate thus reduce the spoilage of fish.
Less expensive method and comparatively simple procedure.
Reduced water content, enzymatic and many chemical processes which are responsible for fish spoilage retarded.
In this method, complicated machinery and equipment are not required.
Dried fish remain stable at most ambient temperature.
Drying is an important process to preserve food materials and to extend the shelf life. Different drying methods are available for drying of foods and each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Traditional drying methods (sun, solar, hot air oven drying) are simple to use but have low energy efficiency and longer drying time. Thus it negatively affects the color, flavor and nutrient content of dried products. Some advanced drying methods (freeze drying, microwave, heat pump and vacuum drying) offer a wide scope for the production of best quality dried products. But usages of these methods for drying are restricted due to its high cost. Therefore cost-effective alternative systems such as combined/hybrid drying can be used for the drying of products with minimum cost and simple technologies. Combination drying with an initial conventional drying process followed by microwave/vacuum or simultaneously two methods hot air with infrared/microwave/vacuum has proven to reduce drying time with improved product quality and minimizing energy requirements.
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Alternative proteins, also known as alternative meat or plant-based meat, refer to food products that are designed to mimic the taste, texture, and appearance of traditional animal-based meat, but are made from plant-based ingredients. These products are becoming increasingly popular due to a growing concern about the environmental impact of animal agriculture, as well as animal welfare and health. Alternative proteins are made from ingredients such as soy, peas, and legumes, and are processed to create products that look, taste, and cook like meat. They are a sustainable and nutritious alternative to animal-based protein and are becoming more accessible and affordable with advances in technology. The alternative protein market is expected to continue to grow in the coming years as more consumers adopt a more plant-based diet and as research continues to uncover new ways to create alternative proteins.
Plant-Based and Algal Proteins
Plant-based proteins and algal proteins are two types of alternative proteins that are gaining popularity due to growing concerns about the environmental impact of animal agriculture and the desire for more sustainable and healthy food options.
Plant-based proteins are derived from plants, such as soy, peas, and legumes. They offer a nutritious and sustainable alternative to animal-based protein and are used to create plant-based meat alternatives, such as burgers, sausages, and other meat analogues. Plant-based proteins are a good source of fiber, vitamins, and minerals and are typically lower in saturated fat and cholesterol compared to animal-based protein.
Algal proteins, on the other hand, are derived from microalgae, a type of single-celled photosynthetic organism. Algae are a sustainable source of protein and are rich in essential amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. They are used to create plant-based food and supplements, including plant-based meat alternatives. Algal proteins are a relatively new type of alternative protein and are still in the early stages of development and commercialization.
Both plant-based and algal proteins offer promising solutions for consumers looking to make more sustainable and health-conscious food choices.
Insects as Protein Sources
Insects are a source of protein that is gaining attention as a sustainable and nutritious alternative to traditional animal-based protein. Insects, such as crickets, beetles, and grasshoppers, are high in protein and contain essential amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. They are also more environmentally friendly to produce than traditional animal-based protein, as they require less land, water, and feed compared to livestock.
Insects are a common food source in many parts of the world, and there is growing interest in incorporating them into Western diets as a sustainable and healthy protein source. Insect-based protein powders, bars, and snacks are becoming increasingly available, and some restaurants are also starting to offer insect-based dishes.
Overall, insects as a protein source are a promising alternative, but more research and development is needed to determine their long-term viability and safety as a food source.
Fermentation-based methods are a way of producing alternative proteins using microorganisms, such as yeast or bacteria, to convert plant-based substrates into a protein-rich product. This process is commonly used to produce alternative protein sources such as tempeh, miso, and single-cell protein.
Fermentation has several advantages over other protein production methods, including:
Increased sustainability: Fermentation uses less land, water, and energy compared to traditional animal agriculture and can be carried out on a smaller scale.
Improved nutritional profile: Fermented protein products can be enriched with vitamins, minerals, and other beneficial compounds.
Reduced food waste: Fermentation can convert food waste into a valuable protein source.
Improved safety: Fermented protein products are generally considered safe for consumption and have a long shelf life.
Cultured meat, as part of the cellular agriculture concept, utilizes tissue engineering approaches by cultivating the stem cells of the animals with nutrient-rich feedstocks in vitro. The production systems use either a self- organizing technique in which transferred muscle produces largely structured tissues, or a scaffolding technique in which cells are grown in scaffolds to form unshaped, soft- end products. Presently, utmost of the research and funding focus is on developing cultured beef, seafood, and pork. Despite significant efforts, several issues have limited cell- based meat production at scale, including growth media concerns, the availability of effective technologies to produce alternatives that mimic traditional meat products, and biomaterial selections failing to perform efficiently in bioreactors.
Biochar is a type of charcoal that’s produced through the pyrolysis of organic materials, generally biomass similar as agricultural waste or forestry residues. It has been shown to have numerous environmental benefits, including the reduction of manure emissions.
Manure emissions, such as methane and nitrous oxide, are significant sources of greenhouse gases and contribute to global warming. Methane has a global warming potential 28 times greater than carbon dioxide, while nitrous oxide has a global warming potential 265 times lesser than carbon dioxide.
Biochar has been shown to reduce manure emissions in several ways. Originally, by adding biochar to livestock feed, it can increase the efficiency of digestion in the animal’s gut, leading to reduced manure emissions. This is due to the porous structure of biochar, which allows it to absorb and hold onto dangerous gases similar as methane and nitrogen.
Additionally, the addition of biochar to manure can also reduce the emission of greenhouse gases during the storage and treatment of manure. The carbon structure of biochar acts as a carbon sink, sequestering carbon dioxide and reducing emissions from the manure.
Furthermore, using biochar as a soil amendment has also been shown to reduce manure emissions. Biochar can improve soil fertility, allowing for more effective use of nitrogen and reducing the need for excessive application of manure. This reduction in the need for manure application results in a corresponding decrease in manure emissions.
In conclusion, the addition of biochar to livestock feed, manure, and soil can have a significant impact in reducing manure emissions and mitigating their dangerous effects on the environment. The use of biochar as a sustainable and environmentally friendly solution to reducing manure emissions is a promising area for further research and development.
The process of heating natural rubber with sulphur is called vulcanization. Sulfur vulcanization may be a chemical process for changing natural rubber or related polymers into materials of variable hardness, elasticity, and mechanical durability by heating them with sulfur or sulfur-based curatives or accelerators. Sulfur forms cross-linking bridges between sections of polymer chains which have an effect on the mechanical and electronic properties. Many products are made with vulcanised rubber, as well as tires, shoe soles, hoses, and conveyor belts. The term vulcanization comes from Vulcan, the Roman god of fire.
The main polymers subjected to sulfur vulcanisation are polyisoprene (natural rubber, NR), polybutadiene rubber (BR) and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), all of that are made in unsaturated bonds. Many other specialty rubbers may also be vulcanised, like nitrile rubber (NBR), butyl rubber (IIR) and EPDM rubber. Vulcanisation, in common with the curing of other thermosetting polymers, is mostly irreversible. However, vital efforts have focused on developing ‘de-vulcanization’ processes for recycling of rubber waste.
The details of vulcanization remain murky as a result of the process converts mixtures of polymers to mixtures of insoluble derivatives. By design the reaction doesn’t proceed to completion because fully cross-linked polymer would be too rigid for applications. There has long been uncertainly on whether or not vulcanization proceeds during a radical or ionic manner.
Since the first 1900s, various chemical additives are developed to enhance the speed and efficiency of vulcanisation, as well as to control the character of the cross-linking. Once used together, this collection – the “cure package” – offers a rubber with specific properties.
The cure package consists of various reagents that modify the kinetics and chemistry of crosslinking. These include accelerants, activators, retarders and inhibitors. Note that these are simply the additives used for vulcanisation and that different compounds may also be added to the rubber, like fillers or polymer stabilizers.
Retarders and inhibitors
The curing of rubber has been carried out since prehistoric times. The name of the primary major civilization in Guatemala and Mexico, the Olmec, means that ‘rubber people’ within the Aztec language. Ancient Mesoamericans, spanning from ancient Olmec’s to Aztecs, extracted latex from Castilla elastica, a sort of rubber tree within the area. The juice of a local vine, ipomoea Alba, was then mixed with this latex to create processed rubber as early as 1600 BCE. in the Western world, rubber remained a curiosity, although it was eventually used to manufacture waterproofed products, like Mackintosh rainwear, beginning within the early 1800s.
The discovery of the rubber-sulfur reaction revolutionized the use and applications of rubber, changing the face of the industrial world. Formerly, the only way to seal a small gap between moving machine parts was to use leather soaked in oil. This practice was acceptable only at moderate pressures, but above a certain point, machine designers were forced to compromise between the extra friction generated by tighter packing and greater leakage of steam. Vulcanized rubber solved this problem. It could be formed to precise shapes and dimensions, it accepted moderate to large deformations under load and recovered quickly to its original dimensions once the load is removed. These exceptional qualities, combined with good durability and lack of stickiness, were critical for an effective sealing material.
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Textiles were the dominant industry of the industrial Revolution in terms of employment, worth of output and capital invested with. The textile industry was conjointly the primary to use modern production methods.
The Industrial Revolution began in great United Kingdom, and many of the technological innovations were of British origin. By the mid-18th century United Kingdom was the world’s leading business nation, controlling a world trading empire with colonies in North America and also the Caribbean, and with major military and political hegemony on the Indian subcontinent, notably with the proto-industrialised Mughal Bengal, through the activities of the east India Company. The development of trade and also the rise of business were among the main causes of the industrial Revolution.
The earliest recorded use of the term “Industrial Revolution” seems to have been in a letter from 6 July 1799 written by French envoy Louis-Guillaume Otto, saying that France had entered the race to industrialise. “The plan of a replacement social order supported major industrial change was clear in Southey and Owen, between 1811 and 1818, and was implicit as early as Blake within the early 1790s and words worth at the turn of the [19th] century.” The term industrial revolution applied to technological amendment was becoming a lot of common by the late decade, as in Jérôme-Adolphe Blanqui’s description in 1837 of la révolution industrielle.
Six factors facilitated industrialization: high levels of agricultural productivity to produce excess workforce and food; a pool of managerial and entrepreneurial skills; accessible ports, rivers, canals and roads to cheaply move raw materials and outputs; natural resources like coal, iron and waterfalls; political stability and a legal system that supported business; and financial capital available to invest.
The commencement of the industrial Revolution is closely connected to a small variety of innovations, starting within the second half of the eighteenth century. By the 1830s the following gains had been made in important technologies:
Textiles – mechanised cotton spinning powered by steam or water increased the output of a worker by a factor of around 500. The power loom increased the output of a worker by a factor of over 40. The cotton gin increased productivity of removing seed from cotton by a factor of 50. Large gains in productivity also occurred in spinning and weaving of wool and linen, but they were not as great as in cotton.
Steam power – the efficiency of steam engines increased so that they used between one-fifth and one-tenth as much fuel. The adaptation of stationary steam engines to rotary motion made them suitable for industrial uses. The high pressure engine had a high power to weight ratio, making it suitable for transportation. Steam power underwent a rapid expansion after 1800.
Iron making – the substitution of coke for charcoal greatly lowered the fuel cost of pig iron and wrought iron production. Using coke also allowed larger blast furnaces, resulting in economies of scale. The steam engine began being used to pump water and to power blast air in the mid-1750s, enabling a large increase in iron production by overcoming the limitation of water power. The cast iron blowing cylinder was first used in 1760. It was later improved by making it double acting, which allowed higher blast furnace temperatures. The puddling process produced a structural grade iron at a lower cost than the finery forge. The rolling mill was fifteen times faster than hammering wrought iron. Hot blast (1828) greatly increased fuel efficiency in iron production in the following decades.
Invention of machine tools – The first machine tools were invented. These included the screw cutting lathe, cylinder boring machine and the milling machine. Machine tools made the economical manufacture of precision metal parts possible, although it took several decades to develop effective techniques.
The Industrial revolution has been criticised for complete ecological collapse, inflicting mental illness, pollution and unnatural systems of organizing for humanity. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution individuals have criticised it by stating the industrial Revolution turned humanity and nature into slaves and destroying the world. It’s also been criticised by valuing profits and company growth over life and wellbeing, multiple movements have arose philosophically against the industrial revolution and include groups like the Amish and Primitivism.
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