Different Methods of Grain Drying

Grain drying is method of drying grain to stop spoilage throughout storage. The grain drying represented during this article is that which uses fuel- or electric-powered processes supplementary to natural ones, as well as swathing/windrowing for drying by close air and sunshine.

Hundreds of millions of tonnes of wheat, corn, soybean, rice and different grains as sorghum, sunflower seeds, rapeseed/canola, barley, oats, etc., are dried in grain dryers. Within the main agricultural countries, drying contains the reduction of moisture from about 17-30% w/w [clarification needed] to values between eight and 15%w/w, looking on the grain. The ultimate moisture content for drying should be adequate for storage. A lot of oil the grain has, the lower its storage moisture content is (though its initial moisture for drying will be lower). Drying is carried out as a requisite for safe storage, so as to inhibit microbic growth. However, low temperatures in storage are extremely suggested to avoid degradative reactions and, especially, the expansion of insects and mites. a decent maximum storage temperature is regarding eighteen °C.

The performance of a drier are often simulated with computer programs supported mathematical models that represent the phenomena concerned in drying: physics, physical chemistry, thermodynamics, and heat and mass transfer. Most recently computer models are used to predict product quality by achieving a compromise between drying rate, energy consumption, and grain quality. A typical quality parameter in wheat drying is bread creating quality and germination percentage whose reductions in drying are somewhat connected.

Drying starts at the bottom of the bin, that is the primary place air contacts. The dry air is referred to by the fan through a layer of wet grain. Drying happens in a layer of one to two feet thick that is termed the drying zone. The drying zone moves from the bottom of the bin to upper part, and once it reaches the very best layer, the grain is dry. The grain below drying zone is in equilibrium moisture content with drying air, which implies it’s safe for storage; whereas the grain on top still requires drying. The air is then forced out the bin through exhaust vent.

  • Allowable Storage Time
  • Proper moisture levels for safe storage
  • Equilibrium Moisture Content
  • Temperature
  • Aeration

The drying value is created from 2 parts: the cost of capital and also the operating expense. cost of capital is essentially rely upon the drying rate demand, and equipment value. operating expense refers to fuel, electricity and labor value. the number of energy needed to dry a bushel of grain is comparable for all the drying ways. Some ways rely mostly on natural air, whereas others might use lp heat or fossil fuel, that create energy price vary. Basically, fuel and electrical power are the foremost parts of the operating expense. Drying value is predicated on the B.T.U. consumption of temperature change from environment to desired one.

Classification of grain drying methods according to mode of heat transfer:

Storage drying methods

  • Low-temperature drying
  • Multiple-layer drying

Batch drying methods

  • Bin batch drying
  • Column batch drying

Continuous flow drying methods

  • Cross flow drying
  • Counter flow drying
  • Concurrent flow drying

Applications of grain drying

  • Sunflower drying
  • Bean drying
  • Corn drying

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for drying of grains in various products range from our wide experience.

Drying Methods for Improving the Quality of Dried Herbs

Herbs are “any plant with leaves, seeds, or flowers used for seasoning, food, medicine, or perfume”. Herbs are considered to be extremely perishable foods thanks to their high moisture content and most herbs are chill-sensitive. They’re thus processed by drying to make shelf-stable product. Drying preserves the standard of herbs by reducing the moisture content that inhibits the expansion of microorganisms and chemical alterations throughout dried storage. Within the cooking sense, dried herbs are usually used as “flavouring” agents to feature their characteristic aromas to the foods. Aside from the cooking usages of herbs, their oil may be used as AN antimicrobial agent that’s effective against microorganism, yeast, and molds. Dried herbs even have several applications in alternative fields, like in medical and toiletry product and in fragrance producing. Herbs are identified to be a superb source of antioxidants. The standard characteristics thought of to be the most necessary for dried herbs could rely upon their usage. For example, the standard of medical dried herbs is defined by the content of bioactive compounds. Whereas the standard of culinary dried herbs is typically defined by their color and fresh-like characteristic aroma.

Dried culinary herbs are typically high in price, thus, the expectation of end user relating to the standard of the product are typically high. The quality specifications of dried herbs are listed largely to make sure the chemical and microbiological safety of the product, such as, moisture content, bulk density, foreign matter, and the content of excretory product, aflatoxins and heavy metals.

Essential oil is the main contribution of herb aroma though it’s present in little amounts. The international organization for Standardization (ISO) has defined the meaning of the term “essential oil” as a “product obtained from a natural material of plant origin, by steam distillation, by mechanical processes from the pericarp of citrus fruits, or by dry distillation, when separation of the liquid section — if any — by physical processes”. Essential oils are often utilized in many varieties of applications, like pharmaceutics, cosmetics, and therefore the medical and food industries. In fresh herbs, essential oils are keep on the surface of the leaves in specialised structures referred to as trichomes, that are uni- or multicellular appendages within the epidermal cells that develop outward from the surface of plant organs like leaves, roots or barks. Therefore, conserving trichome integrity or minimizing the harm to trichomes throughout drying may improve the yield of essential oils and therefore the aroma quality of dried herbs. Volatile compounds in herbs may be conjointly found in glycosidically-bound forms as they’re water soluble and may be accumulated within the plant tissues. 

Essential oils are composed of some or several chemical compounds, with some kinds of herbs containing over 100 chemical compounds. The chemical composition of the essential oils varies decided by the kind of herb, harvesting season, postharvest practices, age of the plant and storage conditions. Every compound contributes its specific flavor to the essential oil. This contribution depends on their specific odour threshold, which may be determined by the structure and volatility of the compound. The changes within the concentration of the essential oil chemical parts (either by chemical reactions or degradation), even with minor elements, could lead to drastic changes within the essential oil flavor.

The changes in volatile compounds throughout the drying method additionally rely on the biological factors of the herbs, as well as initial moisture content, the age of the plant, growth conditions and harvesting time. Storage conditions also have an effect on the content of volatiles of the dried product, particularly within the presence of light and oxygen. The reduction of some essential oil elements may be considered to be a profit, like the reduction of pulegone, a hepatotoxin in hedeoma pulegioides and mentha pulegium.

Pre-treatments before drying are process methods aimed toward achieving high-quality dried herbs; shorten the drying time, and reducing the energy consumption. Smart pre-treatments implementation should produce solely smallest modification to the drying method settings to reduce the follow-up prices from the modification. Many pre-treatments are reported to provide advantages for drying of herbs, like blanching, pulsed electric field, and ultrasonic treatment.

Drying technique is one among the main factors affecting the quality of dried herbs. Drying strategies applying extreme temperature would considerably decrease the number of aroma compounds, since aroma compounds are heat-sensitive substances and might be evaporated from plant tissues simply throughout drying.

Drying Methods used for herbs are classified below:

  • Sun drying
  • Shade drying
  • Solar-assisted drying
  • Hot-air drying
  • Freeze drying
  • Microwave drying
  • Microwave-vacuum drying
  • Heat-pump-assisted drying
  • Infrared drying
  • Fluidized bed drying
  • Supercritical CO2 drying (scCO2)
  • Radio-frequency drying
  • Hybrid drying methods

A number of pre-drying treatments and drying strategies, investigated in numerous herbs, are developed, showing an improvement in quality, better energy conservation, and higher method efficiency. Hybrid-drying techniques have shown promising results on the development of dried herbs quality as well as each color and aroma. In spite of those technological developments, obtaining high-quality dried herbs remains a difficulty as herbs are sensitive to completely different pre-drying and drying method conditions, primarily in regard to color and aroma. Moreover, the standard of dried herbs is incredibly sensitive to the kind of herb, harvesting season, postharvest practices, age of the plant and storage conditions.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for drying of herbs in various products range from our wide experience.

Importance of Granulation Techniques and Technologies

Granulation, the method of particle enlargement by agglomeration technique, is one among the most vital unit operations in the production of pharmaceutical dosage forms, largely tablets and capsules. Granulation method transforms fine powders into free-flowing, dust-free granules that are simple to compress. Nonetheless, granulation poses various challenges because of top quality demand of the formed granules in terms of content uniformity and physicochemical properties like granule size, bulk density, porosity, hardness, moisture, compressibility, etc. beside physical and chemical stability of the drug. Granulation method may be divided into 2 types: wet granulation that utilize a liquid within the method and dry granulation that needs no liquid. The kind of method choice needs thorough information of physicochemical properties of the drug, excipients, and needed flow and release properties, to name some. Among presently available technologies, spray drying, roller compaction, high shear mixing, and fluid bed granulation are worth of note. Like several alternative scientific fields, pharmaceutical granulation technology conjointly continues to vary, and arrival of novel and innovative technologies are inevitable.

Recent progress in the granulation techniques and technologies such as:

  • Pneumatic dry granulation
  • Reverse wet granulation
  • Steam granulation
  • Moisture-activated dry granulation
  • Thermal adhesion granulation
  • Freeze granulation
  • Foamed binder or foam granulation

Granulation, a method of particle enlargement by agglomeration, is one amongst the most important unit operations within the production of pharmaceutical dosage forms, largely tablets and capsules. Throughout the granulation method, tiny fine or coarse particles are converted into massive agglomerates referred to as granules. Generally, granulation commences when initial dry mixing of the required powder ingredients along with the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), so that a regular distribution of every ingredient throughout the powder mixture is achieved.

The type of method choice needs thorough information of physicochemical properties of the drug, excipients, needed flow and release properties, etc. Granulation technologies like roller compaction, spray drying, supercritical fluid, and low/high shear mixing, fluid bed granulation, extrusion/spheronization, etc. are flourishing for several decades within the preparation of assorted pharmaceutical dosage forms. Pharmaceutical granulation technology continues to vary, and numerous improved, modified, and novel techniques and technologies are created out there on the course.

Dry granulation may be achieved either by roller compaction or by slugging. There has not been a lot of progress in the dry granulation technique and technology as compared to wet granulation, apart from one vital innovation called pneumatic dry granulation technology.

Pneumatic Dry Granulation (PDG)

Pneumatic dry granulation (PDG), an innovative dry granulation technology, utilizes roller compaction together with a proprietary air classification technique to supply granules with extraordinary combination of flow ability and compressibility. during this technique, granules are created from powder particles by at first applying gentle compaction force by roller compactor to supply a compacted mass comprising a combination of fine particles and granules. The fine particles and/or smaller granules are separated from the supposed size granules in a fractioning chamber by entraining in a gas stream (pneumatic system), whereas the supposed size granules undergo the fractioning chamber to be compressed into tablets. The entrained fine particles and/or tiny granules are then transferred to a device like a cyclone and are either came back to the roller compactor for immediate re-processing (recycling or recirculation process) or placed in a container for reprocessing later to attain the granules of desired size.

Wet granulation is the widely used technique and the granules are produced by wet massing of the excipients and API with granulation liquid with or without binder. Wet granulation has witnessed various technical and technological innovations such as:

  • Steam granulation
  • Moisture-activated dry granulation or moist granulation
  • Thermal adhesion granulation
  • Melt granulation
  • Freeze granulation
  • Foamed binder or foam granulation
  • Reverse wet granulation

Technical and technological innovations that improve and ease existing processes may contribute to improved process ability and quality of the product formulations in addition to a considerable impact on the product development, time and economy. Obviously, the pharmaceutical granulation techniques and technologies have improved over the years. Nonetheless, efficient and cost-effective producing ways have continually been the keen interest of the pharmaceutical industries, that catapults the analysis and development of latest and improved technologies by the interdisciplinary scientists of pharmaceutical corporations globally. Throughout the formulation development, every drug substance poses a novel challenge that has got to be taken into consideration at the method selection stage by the formulation development scientists. every technique has its own merits and limitations, and therefore the variety of technique and technology selection needs thorough knowledge of physicochemical properties of the drug, excipients, needed flow and release properties, etc. in addition to the granulation techniques and technologies itself.

In the pharmaceutical industry, although numerous technologies are introduced from time to time, only few have emerged as productive for real time utilization because of completely different types of hurdles like manufacturing efficiency, economy, regulatory issues, etc.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for granulation techniques and technologies in various products range from our wide experience.

Role of Special Purpose Machines in Automobile Industry

Special Purpose Machines are those who are out of stock on the shelf. These machines got to be tailored as per the necessity of the client since they’re not present within the standard manufacturing programs. These machines are unremarkably referred to as bespoke machines. within the production technique, there’s continuously a requirement and scope to boost the standard of the merchandise and additionally specialise in the opposite factors prefer to minimize the rejection and increase the productivity of every person so as to cater the pressing circumstances during this globalized world economy.

The only answer to the present demand is Special Purpose Machines that expeditiously provides high productivity. This sector will become absolutely fledged by activity a full scale automation of the economic method that’s attainable where. The use of the Special Purpose Machines beside the automation has reduced the possibility of errors, has conjointly reduced the human fatigue in closing the repetitive operations over and over again. This conjointly ensures the standard and interchange ability of the components by carrying out the same designed processes each time with none shortcuts. The Special Purpose Machines and automatic machines are purposely designed to control unendingly for twenty-four hours each day with least supervision. These machines usually product specific and wish to be designed and developed differently for every specific demand. Generally it’s even attainable to cater the roles having same options but differ in dimension by applying the conception of change tooling.

These SPM’s are either CAM operated or use hydraulics or pneumatic as an actuating element or amalgamation of all three of them.. Repeatedly they use a dedicated programmable logic controller in conjunction with point sensors and transducers, to command those actuating elements. Typically totally different special motors like stepper motors and servo motors are used as an actuating element. In any case these efforts the productivity achieved is actually high. The productivity vary will increase by three to ten times. However, to completely achieve the impact of these efforts the sole precondition is that the input to the automated machine should have strict quality control.

Let us take a glance at a number of the special purpose machines in the automobile industry.

  1. Rotary Pneumatic Cylinder

It is a special purpose cylinder with a rotary connection and linear movement used for Collet Clamping. It comes in numerous models as per the force necessities. It failed to have any quite stroke throughout the swing amount. It’s a mechanical attachment type manufactured from Aluminium.

  1. Special Purpose Hydraulic Press

The Special Purpose hydraulic press is created as per the client wants. Plate heating possibility is also available.

  1. Cage Stacker

The machine is meant for mechanized and oriented stacking for the cages and utilized in the bearing machine. The machine stacks diversify into four separate rods that form four stacks of opposite orientations. Excess cages are returned to the moving blow via a lined chute.

We hope you got the basic information about the Special Purpose Machine in Automobile Industry.

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The Impact and Role of the Energy Conservation in Industries

Energy conservation is that the practice of decreasing the amount of energy used for constant quality and quantity of Output. it should be achieved through economical energy use, in which case energy use is decreased whereas achieving an identical outcome, or by reduced consumption of energy services.

Energy conservation leads to increase of economic capital, environmental worth, national security, personal security, and human comfort. People and organizations that are direct shoppers of energy might want to conserve energy so as to reduce energy costs and promote economic security. Industrial and commercial users might want to increase potency and so maximize profit.

Energy Management:

Energy Conservation

  • Energy Conservation includes any behavior that results in the use of less energy.
  • Focuses on Behavior of People
  • One example is using Daylight through window rather than turning on the Lights.

Energy Efficiency

  • Energy Efficiency involves the use of Technology that requires less energy to perform the same function.
  • Focuses on the Equipment or Machinery being used.
  • One example is installing LED Light Bulbs for the Street Lights.

Renewable Energy

  • Renewable Energy is the energy obtained from sources that are essentially inexhaustible.
  • Focuses on the resources such as Wind, Solar, and Geo-Thermal. One example is installing Solar Power Plant.

In any industry, the three prime operational costs are typically found to be Energy (both electrical and thermal), Labor and Materials. Among the 3, energy has the best potential for value reduction. To attain and maintain Optimum Energy procurance and Utilization, throughout the Organization. To reduce Energy prices / waste while not affecting Production & Quality to reduce Environmental Effects.

Industrial Sector uses both, the Thermal and Electrical energy in various Equipment like Boilers Compressors Furnaces Diesel Generating engines Motors Pumps Refrigeration etc.

Tips for Electrical Energy Saving

  • Improve Power issue by putting in capacitors to reduce KVA demand charges and conjointly line losses among the plant.
  • Improvement of power factor from 0.85 to 0.96 will give 11.5% reduction of peak KVA and 21.6% reduction in peak losses.
  • Avoid repeated rewinding of motors. Observations show that rewound motors practically have an efficiency loss of Upto 5%. This is mainly due to increase in no load losses.
  • Use of variable frequency drives and fluid couplings for variable speed applications such as fans, pumps etc. helps in minimizing consumption.

The electric motors are utilized to give motive power to equipment like compressors, pumps, blowers, etc. it’s necessary that the economic users define their want accurately to modify correct choice of a motor for a selected application. Of the entire electricity consumed within the industrial sector, electrical motors account for roughly 70%.

  • The motors should be energy efficient.
  • Convert delta to star connection for lightly loaded motors.
  • Install variable voltage frequency (VVVF) drives for speed control of motors.
  • Install multi speed motor.

Tips for Thermal energy saving

  • Undertake regular energy audits.
  • Plug all oil leakage as leakage of one drop of oil per second amounts to a loss of over 2000 liters/year.
  • Filter oil in stages. Impurities in oil affect combustion.
  • Incomplete combustion leads to wastage of fuel. Observe the color of smoke emitted from chimney. Black smoke indicates improper combustion and fuel wastage. White smoke indicates excess air and hence loss of heat. Hazy brown smoke indicates proper combustion.
  • The maintenance in plant should follow the “zero leaks” philosophy, particularly in the areas of steam and utilities so that loss of energy could be totally eliminated.

Renewable energy is that the energy obtained from sources that are primarily inexhaustible like sun and wind. A renewable energy system converts the energy found in sunlight, wind, falling-water, sea-waves, geothermal heat, or biomass into a type, we are able to use like heat or electricity.

Different examples of renewable energy are:

  • Solar Energy
  • Wind Energy
  • Hydro Power
  • Biomass Geo-Thermal

Energy Audit: Energy Audit suggests that the Verification, monitoring and Analysis of use of Energy as well as submission of technical report containing recommendations for rising Energy efficiency with cost profit analysis and an action attempt to reduce energy consumption.

Audit Methodology:

  • Preliminary Energy Audit
  • Detailed Energy Audit

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for energy conservation techniques in various products range from our wide experience.

Energy Management in Food Industry

For food and beverage plants, effective energy management is currently a business necessity. Increased competitive pressures, tighter margins and rising energy prices are forcing makers to change their historical approach of treating energy usage as an unmanaged trade expense. Whereas electricity is that the largest energy cost for many food and beverage plants, it additionally offers the best opportunities for saving and might deliver the quickest payback.

The key to effective energy management is twofold. First, makers would like info regarding wherever, once and how a lot of energy is being consumed. Second, they have the flexibility to act on that information. Makers and producers will then develop an integrated energy-management program established correct consumption, spending patterns and demand profiles. As a result, they can more accurately confirm power-consumption prices and create additional intelligent business choices to assist minimize those prices.

When progressing to reduce energy use and make an efficient energy-management strategy, makers and producers ought to take four key steps: monitor, analyze, control and sustain gains.

At the heart of an efficient program may be a network of digital power-monitoring devices that capture and communicate energy-consumption data. These devices are} used to measure energy parameters related to a particular system. Observation systems for food and beverage producing will include power, gas, water and wastewater.

With this info, plant managers will gather elaborated info on power consumption in several areas of their plants, from specific machines to individual product lines. Usually a plant manager is stunned to search out that sixty to seventy percent of energy is being consumed once no production is running. Understanding the true base load or fixed portion of energy consumption may be a sensible place to begin. Additionally, managers will gain access to power-quality info that may increase productivity and lengthen equipment life, further enhancing profits.

Monitoring systems give the foundation for the correct collecting and coverage of energy information. However, information analysis permits plants to form higher choices regarding dominating their energy prices.

Energy-management software will act as a centralized info for all accessible energy parameters inside a facility or across multiple facilities. The package will facilitate employees see issues which may exist and lead them to the right corrective actions. This same software additionally permits makers to model their energy profiles by measuring peak demands and power-quality parameters, crucial demand patterns, matching energy consumption to weather patterns, aggregating loads and calculating energy prices.

This plan depends on an integrated network architecture established on open standards that permits users to deliver energy data across the enterprise. This design permits communication employing a form of open networks, like EtherNet/IP™ and Device Net™, via wired or wireless devices for quicker information transfer and simple integration with existing networks.

After analysing the information, plant managers will develop an action plan and install automation systems to capture energy savings with a control system. Established on the energy goals of the plant, management systems may be deployed to yield totally different results.

Once a manufacturer understands wherever energy is being consumed and effectively reduces that quantity, the goal is to sustain those gains. However that’s tough. Plant operations will change a plant’s energy profile and mask the true gains created by an energy-management program. Once knowledge isn’t tracked and related to production output usually enough, it will seem that the initial energy-consumption investments don’t seem to be paying off. To sustain and keep an energy program on the right track, many ways are often helpful:

  • Continue to reinforce energy as a priority in operational decision-making
  • Communicate program successes as they occur
  • Extend power- and energy-monitoring solutions to support continuous-improvement efforts
  • Hold monthly reviews of critical energy KPIs
  • Conduct an annual energy-management system assessment to help assure the program is following the on-going plan set by management

If a manufacturer or producer is unable to manage their power usage and doesn’t know their energy-consumption profiles, it can make reducing energy prices a tough task. this is often why having the proper info is essential. Fortunately for food and beverage producers, technologies are offered that enable them to accurately monitor, analyze and control each their energy consumption and quality. Energy is not any longer the unmanageable expense it once. Learn a lot of about a way to improve energy management in your facility.

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Difference between freezing and deep freezing

Refrigeration utilized to preserve foods dates back to prehistoric times. At the time, folks used snow and ice to store looking hunting. Slow freezing was risky; it was not until the twentieth century that the commercialisation of frozen foods began with the invention of a speedy freezing method: the deep freezing.

In order to achieve a negative core temperature for preservation, there are two options: freezing or deep freezing.


Freezing may be a technique that involves a slow decrease (up to 24h) in temperature. The water contained in product is transformed into massive ice crystals. This method is employed by private individuals WHO keep their food stored in the freezer.

Disadvantages: the perimeters of the crystals will find you perforating the food cell wall. Elements of the water and therefore the most volatile aromas will evaporate. Disorganization of structural tissues will cause enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions that alter texture and flavours of the food product. Also they have a tendency to dry out.


Deep-freezing is an industrial technique that involves cooling quickly and viciously (a couple of minutes to an hour) food by exposing them intensely to temperatures from -30 ° C to -50 ° C, till the product core temperature reaches -18 ° C. With this method, the water contained within the cells is finely crystallized. The killing of cells and also the proliferation of microorganisms are restricted. The cells become dormant as results of the low-temperature. Therefore the products treated retain their freshness, textures and flavours keeping their essential nutrients and vitamins.

To ensure optimum efficiency, deep-freezing equipment should be custom-made per the frozen foods. It’s so necessary to look at the freezing capability given on the info sheet of the deep freezing unit (deep-freezer, blast chiller for trays or trolleys, deep-freezing tunnel).

Deep freezing will cause serious sickness if the method isn’t performed properly, it’s so necessary to require various precautions to avoid this and to preserve the first quality of the products.



Food must always be cooled to 4 ° C before being frozen to avoid increasing the temperature of the chamber and cause electrical consumption.

Once frozen, the products should be keep at a negative temperature variable from -9 to -18 ° C depending on the product. bear in mind to see the temperature and maintain your storage equipment.


It is better to deep freeze a recent product instead of a product that has already began to spoil so as to preserve its qualities.

Basic hygiene rules still need to be adhered to even though we are operating with low temperatures for although there are fewer being or they become dormant some will survive at low temperatures. it’s thus essential to:

  • Wash hands thoroughly and all food handling tools.
  • Wash the products.
  • Clean and disinfect the deep-freezer / storage system / cold room.
  • Use sealed freezer bags or suitable containers to protect the food while taking care to air vacuum and carefully close lids or bags.
  • Never refreeze a product that has been defrosted or during defrosting. Re-freezing a product which has been defrosted causes proliferation of bacteria. If they are pathogenic, they can cause food poisoning.


The shelf life of frozen foods varies from one to twenty four months according to totally different food products. it’s thus essential to label them so as to not exceed the recommended expiration date.

  • Here is the best use before dates for the following food groups*:
  • Fruits and vegetables: 24 months
  • Pre-cooked potato products: 24 months
  • Meat and poultry, whole or in portions: from 15 to 18 months
  • Minced Meat: 12 months
  • Sea food fished or farmed: 24 months
  • Fatty fish: from 9 to 10 months
  • Breaded Fish: 24 months
  • Baked pastries, doughs and Viennese pastries: 12 months
  • Raw Viennese pastries: 24 months
  • Ready meals: from 18 to 24 months
  • ice creams and sorbets: from 18 to 24 months


Defrosting allows, by gradual warming, a frozen product to come back to its original state. Throughout the increase in temperature, microorganisms can get up and multiply. From -18 ° C to -2 ° C, microbial hazards are close to zero. Established on the products, it’s suggested:

  • To defrost products at a temperature below 4 ° C than at room temperature where bacteria multiply rapidly.
  • Or cook it directly without defrosting.

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Fundamentals of Industrial Crystallization

Crystallization is the method by which solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure referred as a crystal. Some of the ways by which crystals form are precipitating from a solution, freezing, or more rarely deposition directly from a gas. Attributes of the resulting crystal rely mostly on factors like temperature, air pressure, and in the case of liquid crystals, time of fluid evaporation.

Crystallization happens in 2 major steps. The first is nucleation, the appearance of a crystalline phase from either a super cooled liquid or a supersaturated solvent. The second step is known as crystal growth, which is the increase within the size of particles and results in the crystal state. An important feature of this step is that loose particles form layers at the crystal’s surface and lodge themselves into open inconsistencies like pores, cracks, etc.

The majority of minerals and organic molecules crystallize easily, and the resulting crystals are generally of good quality, i.e. without visible defects. However, larger biochemical particles, like proteins, are often difficult to crystallize. The ease with which molecules will crystallize strongly depends on the intensity of either atomic forces (in the case of mineral substances), intermolecular forces (organic and biochemical substances) or intramolecular forces (biochemical substances).

Crystallization is additionally a chemical solid–liquid separation technique, within which mass transfer of a solute from the liquid solution to a pure solid crystalline phase occurs. In chemical engineering, crystallization happens in a crystallizer. Crystallization is therefore associated to precipitation, although the result is not amorphous or disordered, however a crystal.

The crystallization method consists of 2 major events, nucleation and crystal growth that square measure driven by physics properties furthermore as chemical properties. In crystallization Nucleation is the step where the substance molecules or atoms distributed within the solvent begin to assemble into clusters, on the microscopic scale elevating substance concentration during a little region, that become stable beneath the present in operation conditions. These stable clusters represent the nuclei. Therefore, the clusters got to reach a crucial size so as to become stable nuclei. It’s at the stage of nucleation that the atoms or molecules prepare during a outlined and periodic manner that defines the crystal structure.

Many compounds have the power to crystallize with some having totally different crystal structures, a development referred to as polymorphism. Bound polymorphs could also be stability, that means that though it’s not in thermodynamics equilibrium, it’s kinetically stable and needs some input of energy to initiate a change to the equilibrium part. Every organism is in reality thermodynamics solid state and crystal polymorphs of equivalent compound exhibit different physical properties, like dissolution rate, form (angles between sides and aspect growth rates), temperature, etc. For this reason, polymorphism is of major importance in industrial manufacture of crystalline product. In addition, crystal phases will generally be interconverted by variable factors like temperature, like within the transformation of anatase to mineral phases of oxide. Crystal formation can be divided into two types, where the first type of crystals is composed of a cation and anion, also known as a salt, such as sodium acetate. The second types of crystals are composed of uncharged species, for example menthol.

Crystal formation will be achieved by various ways, such as: cooling, evaporation, addition of a second solvent to reduce the solubility of the substance technique called antisolvent or drown-out, solvent layering, and sublimation, dynamic the cation or anion, similarly as different ways.

The formation of a supersaturated solution does not guarantee crystal formation, and often a seed crystal or scratching the glass is required to form nucleation sites.

A typical laboratory technique for crystal formation is to dissolve the solid in an exceedingly answer during which its part soluble, sometimes at high temperatures to get super saturation. The recent mixture is then filtered to get rid of any insoluble impurities. The filtrate is allowed to slowly cool. Crystals that type square measure then filtered and washed with a solvent during which they’re not soluble, however is mixable with the mother liquor. The method is then recurrent to extend the purity in an exceedingly technique called recrystallization.

For biological molecules within which the solvent channels still be present to retain the 3 dimensional structure intact, small batch crystallization below oil and vapour diffusion methods have been the common methods.

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Different Types of Heating Systems Used in Industries

Industrial heating systems contains a circuit that combines the technologies necessary to supply heat effectively to a determined industrial production process, guaranteeing the standard of the top product, maximizing productivity and minimizing energy costs.

The efficiency of an industrial heating system is set by its capacity to accommodate the standard requirements within the manufacturing process of a given product. These systems include all the elements and technologies needed to heat or melt a precise product.

The energy efficiency of an industrial heating system could be a key aspect, since said system should be capable of producing a product with the expected quality standards and with the lower energy consumption. Efficient industrial heating systems allow initiating a production process with reduced energy requirements for every unit of heated product at an exact temperature.

For this reason, today we are about to analyze the main kinds of industrial heating in order that you’ll decide which the best suited for your business.

Hot air generators

These are pieces of apparatus that work completely autonomously and are intended for heating any workplace or sort of space. a good advantage is that by not needing any kind of heat dissipating element, the acquisition and installation costs are significantly reduced.

This type of generators uses a large type of fuels, like diesel, natural gas or propane gas. Its operation established on heating the air drawn in by the fans, which is distributed throughout the space, achieving very pleasant temperatures with extreme speed, greater than other conventional heating systems.

  • Direct air delivery system with grilles or rotating delivery ports.
  • Air supply system with ducts to direct the air in the areas where heating is required. Among the main advantages of hot air generators, the speed with which it heats the various spaces are often highlighted, while reducing the humidity level of the environment. Additionally, the repair and maintenance costs are very low, and it is often used as ventilation within the summer.

Convection Air Heating Systems

Convection systems use either gas burners or electric elements to heat air in an enclosed recirculation system. With gas-fired systems, gas (natural or liquid) is fed into a burner, and also the heat from that’s distributed evenly throughout the unit with a fan. With electric systems, heating elements are used rather than a burner.

Convection air heating systems are the foremost common heating methods we use since the amount of heat they produce are easily controlled, providing consistent results across the board.

Infrared Heating Systems

Infrared (IR) heating uses various wavelength light emitter panels to radiate energy established the intensity of the heating required for the parts being processed. IR panels used are often made up of sheathed elements, quartz panels or lights to UV wavelength lamps. the utilization of IR heaters is right when the radiant light energy can reach the part surface.

An advantage of IR heating is it’s often faster than convection heating if only surface heating of the part is required.

Infrared heating are often utilized in curing powder paint, epoxy, and polyester resin. additionally, it also can be used to pretreat other kinds of coatings.

Induction Heating Systems

Induction heating uses electromagnetism to heat the conductive components of a section. induction heating is accomplished by running an electrical current through an induction coil which produces an electromagnetic field. When steel or iron components are placed within that field, they resist the electrical flow, creating energy and heat within the process.

Induction heating will be a really effective and systematic use of energy and quickly heat up parts, however, the product required to be shaped so a coil will apply the ability properly. once used during a preheating or post heating method, it will dramatically slow down production times, permitting larger systematic and products output.

Radiant duct

This type of heating could be a direct combustion system designed to achieve high temperatures, creating it ideal for big spaces and industrial buildings. It works from a head during which the combustion of diesel or gas happens. The gases that leave there reach high temperatures and start to flow into through the pipes situated on the roof of the buildings that are liable for transmission of heat to the complete atmosphere.

It should be noted that it is necessary to have a space large enough to accommodate the combustion assembly.

Radiant tube

It is another type of direct combustion system that is utilized to achieve higher temperatures in huge scale. Not like the radiant duct, in this type of heating the heat is not focused in a single focus, so its circulation is much more homogeneous.

This system is consists of four basic elements: internal combustion, gas outlet, radiant tube and reflector. The latter is the fundamental element for the heat to be circulated evenly. As for the radiant tube, at its maximum level it can achieve a temperature of 350º.

It is necessary to focus on that. Despite the actual fact that combustion takes place among the system itself, the air quality of the area isn’t affected due to the installation of a gas outlet.

Resistance Power Heating Systems

Resistance heating could be a direct heating of a section or product which will have power applied to that. Examples of resistance heating are electric motor and transformers that permit the part to act as a resistor. Applying numerous amounts of power to the part established its resistance can determine the quantity of your time it’ll take to heat a section by this technique. Resistance heating in electric motor applications is somewhat the alternative of induction heating wherever the conductive steel is heated. In resistance heating, most frequently the copper winding is what’s directly heated, that then conducts the heat to different components of the product that are up-to-date with it.

Save energy by selecting the most effective kind of industrial heating. Installing the proper industrial heating plant for your company is going to mean huge savings on the energy bill at the end of the month. You’ll succeed an optimal temperature in the work space that may significantly improve the operating conditions of workers and their quality of life, while avoiding attainable issues with cold machinery.

Kerone can engineer custom heating systems, including furnaces, industrial ovens, and other thermal systems, with any of these technologies, either on their own or in combination for reduced heating times and optimal processing times.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for heating systems in various products range from our wide experience.

Objectives of Pilot Plant Scale Up Techniques

Plant: – It is a place where the 5 M’s like money, material; man, method and machine are brought together for the manufacturing of the products.

Pilot Plant: – It is the part of the pharmaceutical industry where a lab scale formula is transformed into a viable product by development of liable and practical procedure of manufacture.

Scale-up: – The art for designing of prototype using the data obtained from the pilot plant model. Definitions R & D Production Pilot Plant.

Objectives of Pilot Plant

“Find mistakes on small scale and make profit on large scale.”

  • To produce physically and chemically stable therapeutic dosage forms.
  • Review of the processing equipment.
  • Guidelines for productions and process control.
  • Evaluation and validation for process and equipment’s.
  • To identify the critical features of the process.
  • To provide master manufacturing formula.
  • To try the process on a model of proposed plant before committing large sum of money on a production unit.
  • Examination of the formula to determine its ability to withstand Batch-scale and process modification.
  • To avoid the scale-up problems.

Pilot plant scale-up techniques involve consistent manufacture of associate experimental formulation on high-speed production instrumentation, during a efficient manner. It’s a part district region locality vicinity section of the pharmaceutical trade wherever identical processes used throughout analysis and Development (R&D) of dosage forms are applied to completely different output volumes; typically larger than that obtained throughout R&D.

In each emerging pharmaceutical industry or an already existing one, there’s continually a desire to possess an intermediate batch scale representing procedures and simulating that used for industrial producing. This can be achieved by determining the flexibility of formula to resist batch-scale and process modification.

There is equally a requirement for equipment analysis and validation to make sure that the aim of your company that is the production of the drug in question isn’t defeated. For a pilot scale up to achieve success a product should be capable of being processed in a massive scale typically with equipment that solely remotely resembles that utilized in the event laboratory. the concept is that you simply perceive what makes these processes similar, determine and eliminate several scale-up issues before massive giant sum of money on a production unit.

Maintain the chemical attributes of the product, its quality and effectiveness even though the assembly processes are changed as a results of sample size increase, and equipment changes.

Pilot plant scale-up must include:

  • A close examination of the formula to determine its ability to withstand large scale and process modification.
  • A review of a range of relevant processing equipment to determine which would be most compatible with the formulation as well as the most economical, simple, and reliable in producing the product.
  • What happens during pilot plant scale-up?
  • Determination of the availability of raw materials that consistently meet the specifications required to produce the product.
  • Determination of the physical space required and the layout of related functions to provide short term and long term efficiency.
  • Evaluation, validation, and finalizing of production and process controls.
  • Issuing of adequate records and reports to support Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) and provide the historical development of the production formulation process, equipment train, and specifications
  • Development and validation of meaningful product reprocessing procedures.
  • Identification of all critical features of a scale-up process, so that it can be adequately monitored to provide assurance that the process is under control and that the process at each level of the scale-up maintains the specified attributes originally intended.
  • Production rate and future market requirements.

Pilot plant scale-up is of practical interest to formulation scientist/ production managers and will be thought of from the origin of a development project. this is often be} as a result of a method using constant style of equipment can perform quite otherwise once the scale of the equipment and the quantity of material concerned is considerably increased.

The chemical attributes of the product, its quality and effectuality should be maintained despite the fact that the assembly processes is changed as a results of sample size increase, and equipment changes. You must conjointly bear in mind that pilot plant scale-up, in itself, doesn’t guarantee a smooth transition.

A well-defined method might fail quality assurance tests fully manufacturing scale even once generating an ideal product in both the laboratory and therefore the pilot plant.

Significance Of Pilot Plant/ Importance Of Pilot Plant:

  • Examination of formulae.
  • Review of range of relevant processing equipment’s.
  • Production rate adjustment.
  • Idea about physical space required.
  • Appropriate records and reports to support GMP.
  • Identification of critical features to maintain quality.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for pilot plant scale up techniques and technologies in various products range from our wide experience.