Drying of Food Materials by Microwave Energy

Microwave energy has very successful application in the field of food processing particularly for food drying to preserve the quality of the precious food materials. Various food materials dried using microwave energy was extensively reviewed. Microwave drying appears to be a viable drying method for the rapid drying of food materials. It was noticed that at the higher microwave output power considerably lower drying time took place. The application of pulsed microwave energy was found more efficient than the continuous application. The microwave-vacuum drying could reduce drying time of vegetable leaves by around 80-90%, compared with the hot air drying. Microwave drying maintained a good green color close to that of the original fresh green leaves with surface sterilization in most of the vegetables. The microwave heating of vegetable seed reduces the moisture content and anti-nutritional factor with maintaining the natural color of the valuable seed.

Drying is the oldest and traditional methods of food preservation and is the most widely used technique of preservation, which converts the food into light weight, easily transportable and storable product. Although the origin of drying goes back to antiquity, there is a constant interest and technological improvements in the process of drying keeping this mode of preservation still as new. The specific objective of drying is to remove moisture as quickly as possible at a temperature that does not seriously affect the quality of the food. Drying can be accomplished by a number of traditional and advanced techniques.

Microwave heating is based on the transformation of alternating electromagnetic field energy into thermal energy by affecting the polar molecules of a material. Many molecules in food (such as water and fat) are electric dipoles, meaning that they have a positive charge at one end and a negative charge at the other, and therefore, they rotate as they try to align themselves with the alternating electric field induced by the microwave rays. The rapid movement of the bipolar molecules creates friction and results in heat dissipation in the material exposed to the microwave radiation. Microwave heating is most efficient on water (liquid) and much less on fats and sugars which have less molecular dipole moment.

In drying of food materials, the aim is to eliminate moisture from food materials without affecting their physical and chemical structure. It is also important to preserve the food products and increase their storage stability which can be accomplished by drying. Microwave drying is a newer addition to the family of dehydration methods.

In Microwave drying tomato slice was sampled, from the starting of the drying the change in the sample weight was recorded at the time intervals of 2 minutes. The drying tests were terminated when the moisture content indicated 10%. The final moisture content of each sample was measured in order to calculate the moisture content at each weighing interval. Among several subjective quality attributes of dried tomato slices the colour is an important one which indicates the level of effects of different drying methods or conditions.

Dried fruits are widely used as components in many food formulations such as pastry, confectionery products, ice cream, frozen desserts and yogurt. Among them, dried apples are a significant raw material for many food products. The drying process was progressed through two stages, in the first stage the samples were put in a microwave oven until drying took place mainly in constant rate period; approximately 55% of the water was removed in this period. After that the forced draft oven was used until the apple samples reached the final moisture content. The second stage, the apple samples were put in forced draft oven to reach the final moisture content. For one hour or two hours the value of the drying constant increased with increased microwave output power. The change in color values was dependent on the pretreatment. The 45% sugar solution showed decrease drying rate than the other treatment. The increasing on the density power (W/g) the drying rate increased by 35%.

Many new dimensions came up in drying technology to reduce the energy utilization and operational cost. Selective and volumetric heating effects, microwaves bring new characteristics such as increased rate of drying, enhanced final product quality and improved energy consumption. Combination drying with an initial conventional drying process followed by a microwave finish or microwave vacuum process has proven to reduce drying time while improving product quality and minimizing energy requirements. However, several factors should be taken into consideration when developing drying system for the fruits and vegetables.

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Fundamentals of Thermal Radiations

Consider a hot object that is suspended in an evacuated chamber whose walls are at room temperature. The hot object will eventually cool down and reach thermal equilibrium with its surroundings. This mechanism is radiation. Radiation transfer occurs in solids as well as liquids and gases. But heat transfer through an evacuated space can occur only by radiation. For example, the energy of the sun reaches the earth by radiation. It is interesting that radiation heat transfer can occur between two bodies separated by a medium colder than both bodies. The theoretical foundation of radiation was established in 1864 by physicist James Clerk Maxwell, Who postulated that accelerated charges or changing electric currents give rise to electric and magnetic fields. These rapidly moving fields are called electromagnetic waves or electromagnetic radiation.

Thermal Radiation

Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of particles in matter. All matter with a temperature greater than absolute zero emits thermal radiation. Particle motion results in charge-acceleration or dipole oscillation which produces electromagnetic radiation.

Infrared radiation emitted by animals (detectable with an infrared camera) and cosmic microwave background radiation are examples of thermal radiation.

If a radiation object meets the physical characteristics of a black body in thermodynamic equilibrium, the radiation is called blackbody radiation.[1] Planck’s law describes the spectrum of blackbody radiation, which depends solely on the object’s temperature. Wien’s displacement law determines the most likely frequency of the emitted radiation, and the Stefan–Boltzmann law gives the radiant intensity.

Thermal radiation is also one of the fundamental mechanisms of heat transfer. That is, everything around us such as walls, furniture, and our friends constantly emits (and absorbs) radiation. The type of electromagnetic radiation that is pertinent to heat transfer is the thermal radiation emitted as a result of energy transitions of molecules, atoms, and electrons of a substance. Thermal radiation is continuously emitted by all matter whose temperature is above absolute zero.

Thus, thermal radiation includes the entire visible and infrared (IR) radiation as well as a portion of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

There are 4 main properties that characterize thermal radiation:

  • Thermal radiation emitted by a body at any temperature consists of a wide range of frequencies. The frequency distribution is given by Planck’s law of black-body radiation for an idealized emitter.
  • The dominant frequency (or color) range of the emitted radiation shifts to higher frequencies as the temperature of the emitter increases.
  • The total amount of radiation of all frequency increases steeply as the temperature rises; it grows, where the absolute temperature of the body.
  • The rate of electromagnetic radiation emitted at a given frequency is proportional to the amount of absorption that it would experience by the source, a property known as reciprocity. Thus, a surface that absorbs more red lights thermally radiates more red lights.

Thermal radiation is one of the three principal mechanisms of heat transfer. It entails the emission of a spectrum of electromagnetic radiation due to an object’s temperature. Other mechanisms are convection and conduction.

Radiation heat transfer is characteristically different from the other two in that it does not require a medium and, in fact it reaches maximum efficiency in a vacuum. Electromagnetic radiation has some proper characteristics depending on the frequency and wavelengths of the radiation. The phenomenon of radiation is not yet fully understood.

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Importance of Drying in Agricultural Produce

In most Indian countries, agriculture is that the engine of economic growth. However growing crops is just a part of the story when it comes to making money and feeding the family. What happens after food cultivation and harvest is simply as important. Profit is all regarding value addition –Processing your crops or livestock into one thing that matches a niche market.

One way to add value to agricultural manufacture is to dry it. With the correct equipment and information, manufacture can be sold locally or perhaps internationally for a decent value. However there’s a secret to good drying. It must be done effectively, thoroughly, and losing minimal vitamins that are so necessary in our food and that of our livestock.

A lot of the food that small-scale farmers grow will go to waste within the market because of surpluses at harvest time. Thus drying will be a very good method of food and nutrient preservation, additionally as the way of increasing value and ultimately profits. But drying fruits, vegetables, meat and fish isn’t without risk. In contrast to alternative food products, dried produce will be eaten raw. And since they’re raw, they are a source of food-borne infection. Thus hygiene at each stage – handling, drying, sorting and packaging – is critically necessary.

Some of the health and hygiene issues once getting ready and drying agricultural turn out area unit lined during this pack. Victimization poached water is very important once laundry foods before cutting and cookery them. You ought to check that that you just use separate areas for laundry raw turn out and cookery, as a result of germs will be simply transferred.

Sun drying

For centuries, sun drying has been a way of preserving and saving foods so that they can be eaten during times of scarcity. It is a cheap method of drying produce – sunlight is free and the only costs involve drying mats or platforms, and cutting equipment. But there are disadvantages too. The temperature of sunlight cannot be controlled, leading to over- or under-dried goods. The weather is not always sunny, and sometimes the drying process can take several days.

Solar drying

Another way of using the sun’s rays to dry food is solar drying. Instead of leaving produce in the heat to dry on its own, heat is trapped inside a box, and used to heat the produce enough to dry it, but not enough to cook it. Building a solar drier needs investment. Plastic sheets, wire mesh and wooden frames all need to be bought or found locally. But the technology is not expensive, and the value added to the produce could result in a good profit.

Pre-drying treatments

Before drying your produce, there are treatments that can be used to make the drying process more effective. Examples of natural ingredients used in pre-drying include soaking briefly in sugar or salt solution to reduce moisture content and prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi.

Preparing dried produce for export

There is a big international market for dried fruits and vegetables. But supermarkets have strict standards, which small-scale farmers often find too expensive to enforce, such as the European Retail Standards for Good Agricultural Practice, or EUREPGAP. Strict levels of hygiene, and accounting are important, so that those suppliers who buy dried products can see exactly how they were dried, sorted, and where they come from.

Selling dried products for sale locally

Any buyer or consumer will tell you that one of the most important things to consider when supplying to local markets, is local demand – what your customers want. This is especially true of dried produce, because while dried mango may be very popular in one area, for example, it may not be very popular in another area. If you cannot supply to local markets and you have already invested in solar drying technology, you may be disappointed. Before you grow or invest, do your research. When it comes to selling dried produce locally, you are in a better position than if you wanted to sell to export markets because you will have a good idea what people in your area like.

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Method for Moisture Analysis Techniques

Many industries, including the food, chemical, and pharmaceutical product industries, rely heavily on precise information of the moisture content of their products as a part of quality control. Such measurements required to be fast and reproducible in order to permit for immediate correction of the work flow if any flaw appears in the final product. Both direct and indirect methods are used. Only the direct methods actually measure the moisture content; the indirect techniques only calculate it from alternative indirect indicators.

Direct Methods :

Many devices for LOD measurement use the thermo gravimetric principle. This uses the total loss of weight incurred by the sample on drying to calculate the moisture content.

Drying ovens are based on convection heating of the sample by circulating hot air. Sometimes a vacuum is added to speed up the drying process.

Infrared radiation is used in many moisture analysers, such as halogen moisture analysers which are used to produce infrared radiation from a halogen lamp. The weight of the sample is measured and recorded continuously and once it becomes constant the drying is stopped.

Microwave radiation is also an extremely rapid method of drying up a sample but the temperatures achieved are very high, making it suitable only for very thermostable materials. Larger samples can be used but the level of control of heating is reduced. Like the infrared method, the sample is typically destroyed by the analysis. It is also not useful if the moisture content is below 2%.

Developing a Method :

In all these cases, a method must be developed. This refers to setting the parameters such as time, drying temperature, and the weight of the sample, according to the requirement for each sample. This can be saved as a program for the next measurement of a similar sample. This type of adjustment is necessary to achieve values which agree with those set by the reference methods, such as the oven drying method or the Karl Fischer titration method, whichever is used. In other cases, a deviation is acceptable as long as it is measured and repeatable with each measurement.

Other Physical Methods :

Phosphorous Pentoxide Method – In this method, phosphorous pentoxide is placed with the sample in a closed container which is then heated. Phosphorous pentoxide is a powerful desiccating agent if placed in proximity to materials with which it is chemically non-reactive. It absorbs water from the sample. The final increase in weight of the chemical is measured to give the moisture content of the desiccated sample. Phosphorous pentoxide is a dangerous chemical.

Distillation – Another method of moisture determination is inexpensive but uses toxic solvents while yielding only relatively accurate results. It is based upon separating and measuring the moisture directly after separating it from the sample by heating.

Chemical Methods for Moisture Analysis :

Karl Fischer Titration – The most accurate and specific method for determining the water content of a substance is Karl Fischer (KF) titration. It is based upon the reaction of iodine with sample water, in presence of alcohol solvent, sulfur dioxide, and a base. It uses up the total sample water, including the water of crystallization and surface absorbed water, in the redox reaction.

Calcium Carbide Method – The calcium carbide method is cost-effective and uses a combination of materials to react with water. The end product is potentially explosive, and so the method requires great care. Moreover, the total water in the sample does not take part in the reaction and this means that repeated calibration is a necessity.

Other Methods :

These include gas chromatography, density determination, and refractometry.

Indirect Methods :

These are based upon taking measurements of moisture in different grains of the sample by a moisture sensor, for example, which are then used to calculate the moisture content of the sample. An advantage is that instant measurements are taken and thus changes in the moisture content can be monitored over time.

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Different Type of Drying Methods for Powder

Typically, powder-drying operations involve the application of heat to a solution, wet powder or slurry. Bulking and packaging of the dried powder usually follows. Common dryer types include tray, fluidized bed, and spray, rotary and vacuum dryers. In any type of dryer, the dry powder can build up as a bulk or layer in various locations within the dryer, or in downstream process equipment or ultimately in hoppers, silos, big bags or smaller packages.

Safe Powder Drying

Evaluation of self-heating hazards of powders

The first step in ensuring safety from fires and explosions in drying operations is having a proper understanding of the thermal instability properties of the powder (including its potential for gas generation), dust cloud explosibility and gas flammability.

Powder self-heating hazards can occur when the temperature of the powder in bulk or layer is raised to a level at which the heat generation rate by the exothermic reaction exceeds the rate of heat lost to the surroundings. Temperature increase follows, which frequently results in smoldering and eventually fire. As previously mentioned, several factors can affect the onset temperature for self-heating. Other variables such as air flow through the bulk powder or over the powder surface also influence the transition from smoldering to glowing and flaming as well as the onset temperature for self-heating.

Isothermal Basket Test:

Measurement of exothermic activity involves heating the sample under controlled conditions to determine the point at which its temperature starts to increase independently of the external heat source.

Isothermal basket testing is performed by heating the powder samples in cubical wire baskets of varying sizes (typically three sizes) in an oven to determine the minimum temperature at which each sample size self-heats. This test allows one to observe the effect of scale (that is, powder size/quantity) on the powder’s onset temperature for self-heating more precisely. Each trial involves placing a stainless-steel mesh basket filled with the powder sample in an oven, which is heated and maintained at a preselected temperature until self-heating is detected or for a duration of 24 hours or longer depending on the actual heating or storage cycle under study, whichever occurs first. The trials are repeated at various temperatures and basket sizes until the sample’s minimum onset temperature for self-heating is determined for each basket size.

Bulk Powder Test:

A bulk powder test is used to evaluate self-heating properties of powder in quantities not exceeding 1 ton in situations when it is heated in bulk form. Examples include powder accumulations in bulk in some dryers, hoppers, silos or packaging.

A glass cylinder with a height of 80 mm and diameter of 50 mm, which is closed at the base by a sintered glass, is filled with the test powder and placed in a uniform temperature oven. The temperature of the oven as well as the powder temperature at four different heights within the glass cylinder is monitored.

Aerated Powder Test:

The aerated powder test simulates conditions during drying (heating) operations of powder in quantities not exceeding 1 ton in which a hot air stream flows through the bulking powder — for example, in fluid bed drying.

The glass test cell used for this test is identical to the bulk powder test, however, in the aerated powder test, an air stream, which is at the same temperature as the oven temperature, flows at a rate of 0.6 1/min through the sample during the entire test cycle. As in the bulk powder test, the sample temperature is measured at several locations in the cell to detect any exothermic activity and the activity’s onset temperature.

Powder Layer Test:

The powder layer test (also called air-over-layer test) simulates the conditions in which hot air passes above a layer or deposit of powder in a dryer. Examples include tray dryers and powder deposits on the internal surfaces of all dryer types.

Precautions for avoiding smoldering, fires and explosions include:

  • Keeping the powder temperature at a safe margin below the temperature for the onset for self-heating obtained by appropriate test methods.
  • Facility and equipment design should avoid ledges, corners, dead zone, etc., where powder could inadvertently build up inside process equipment.
  • Avoid accumulation of hazardous levels of powder deposits on the inside surfaces of process equipment.

The prevention of thermal runaway in drying operations can be achieved through careful application of the tests described in this article; they form an important route to achieving safe powder drying. Of course, fire and explosion protection measures and measures to avoid other sources of ignition must also be examined through good process safety practices to achieve safe plant operation.

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Types and Methods of Wood Drying

Wood drying (also seasoning lumber or wood seasoning) reduces the moisture content of wood before its use. When the drying is done in a kiln, the product is known as kiln-dried timber or lumber, whereas air drying is the more traditional method.

There are two main reasons for drying wood:


When wood is used as a construction material, whether as a structural support in a building or in woodworking objects, it will absorb or expel moisture until it is in equilibrium with its surroundings. Equilibration (usually drying) causes unequal shrinkage in the wood, and can cause damage to the wood if equilibration occurs too rapidly. The equilibration must be controlled to prevent damage to the wood.

Wood burning:

When wood is burned (firewood), it is usually best to dry it first. Damage from shrinkage is not a problem here, as it may be in the case of drying for woodworking purposes. Moisture affects the burning process, with unburnt hydrocarbons going up the chimney. If a 50% wet log is burnt at high temperature, with good heat extraction from the exhaust gas leading to a 100 °C exhaust temperature, about 5% of the energy of the log is wasted through evaporating and heating the water vapour. With condensers, the efficiency can be further increased; but, for the normal stove, the key to burning wet wood is to burn it very hot, perhaps starting fire with dry wood.

Types of Wood:

Wood is divided, according to its botanical origin, into two kinds: softwoods, from coniferous trees, and hardwoods, from broad-leaved trees. Softwoods are lighter and generally simple in structure, whereas hardwoods are harder and more complex. However, in Australia, softwood generally describes rain forest trees, and hardwood describes Sclerophyll species (Eucalyptus spp).

Wood – Water Relationship:

The timber of living trees and fresh logs contains a large amount of water which often constitutes over 50% of the wood’s weight. Water has a significant influence on wood. Wood continually exchanges moisture or water with its surroundings, although the rate of exchange is strongly affected by the degree to which wood is sealed.

Wood contains water in three forms:

Free water

The bulk of water contained in the cell Lumina is only held by capillary forces. It is not bound chemically and is called free water. Free water is not in the same thermodynamic state as liquid water: energy is required to overcome the capillary forces. Furthermore, free water may contain chemicals, altering the drying characteristics of wood.

Bound or hygroscopic water

Bound water is bound to the wood via hydrogen bonds. The attraction of wood for water arises from the presence of free hydroxyl (OH) groups in the cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin molecules in the cell wall. The hydroxyl groups are negatively charged. Because water is a polar liquid, the free hydroxyl groups in cellulose attract and hold water by hydrogen bonding.


Water in cell Lumina in the form of water vapour is normally negligible at normal temperature and humidity.

Drying defects

Drying defects are the most common form of degrade in timber, next to natural problems such as knots. There are two types of drying defects, although some defects involve both causes:

Defects from shrinkage anisotropy, resulting in warping: cupping, bowing, twisting, crooking, spring and diamonding.

Defects from uneven drying, resulting in the rupture of the wood tissue, such as checks (surface, end and internal), end splits, honey-combing and case hardening. Collapse, often shown as corrugation, or so-called wash boarding of the wood surface, may also occur (Innes, 1996). Collapse is a defect that results from the physical flattening of fibres to above the fibre saturation point and is thus not a form of shrinkage anisotropy.

The five measures of drying quality include:

  • Moisture content gradient and presence of residual drying stress (case-hardening);
  • Surface, internal and end checks;
  • Collapse;
  • Distortions;
  • Discolouration caused by drying.

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Significance of Heat Exchanger

A heat exchanger is a system used to transfer heat between two or more fluids. Heat exchangers are used in both cooling and heating processes. The fluids may be separated by a solid wall to prevent mixing or they may be in direct contact. They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power stations, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, natural-gas processing, and sewage treatment. The classic example of a heat exchanger is found in an internal combustion engine in which a circulating fluid known as engine coolant flows through radiator coils and air flows past the coils, which cools the coolant and heats the incoming air. Another example is the heat sink, which is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant.

There are three primary classifications of heat exchangers according to their flow arrangement. In parallel-flow heat exchangers, the two fluids enter the exchanger at the same end, and travel in parallel to one another to the other side. In counter-flow heat exchangers the fluids enter the exchanger from opposite ends. The counter current design is the most efficient, in that it can transfer the most heat from the heat (transfer) medium per unit mass due to the fact that the average temperature difference along any unit length is higher.

  1. Double-pipe heat exchanger (a) when the other fluid flows into the annular gap between two tubes, one fluid flows through the smaller pipe. The flow may be a current flow or parallel flow in a double pipe heat exchanger. (b) Parallel flow, where at the same point, the hot and cold liquids join, flow in the same direction and exit at the same end.(c) Counter flow, where at opposite ends, hot and cold fluids join, flow in the opposite direction and exit at opposite ends.
  2. Shell-and-tube heat exchanger. The main constituents of this type of heat exchanger seem to be the tube box, shell, the front rear end headers, and baffles or fins.
  3. Plate Heat Exchanger A plate heat exchanger contains an amount of thin shaped heat transfer plates bundled together. The gasket arrangement of each pair of plates provides two separate channel system. Each pair of plates form a channel where the fluid can flow through. The pairs are attached by welding and bolting methods. The following shows the components in the heat exchanger.
  4. Condensers and Boilers Heat exchangers using a two-phase heat transfer system are condensers, boilers and evaporators. Condensers are instruments that take and cool hot gas or vapor to the point of condensation and transform the gas into a liquid form. The point at which liquid transforms to gas is called vaporization and vice versa is called condensation. Surface condenser is the most common type of condenser where it includes a water supply device. Figure 5 below displays a two-pass surface condenser.

To select an appropriate heat exchanger, the system designers (or equipment vendors) would firstly consider the design limitations for each heat exchanger type. Though cost is often the primary criterion, several other selection criteria are important:

  • High/low pressure limits
  • Thermal performance
  • Temperature ranges
  • Product mix (liquid/liquid, particulates or high-solids liquid)
  • Fluid flow capacity
  • Cleanability, maintenance and repair
  • Materials required for construction
  • Ability and ease of future expansion
  • Material selection, such as copper, aluminium, carbon steel, stainless steel, nickel alloys, ceramic, polymer, and titanium.

Heat exchangers are widely used in industry both for cooling and heating large scale industrial processes. The type and size of heat exchanger used can be tailored to suit a process depending on the type of fluid, its phase, temperature, density, viscosity, pressures, chemical composition and various other thermodynamic properties.

In many industrial processes there is waste of energy or a heat stream that is being exhausted, heat exchangers can be used to recover this heat and put it to use by heating a different stream in the process. This practice saves a lot of money in industry, as the heat supplied to other streams from the heat exchangers would otherwise come from an external source that is more expensive and more harmful to the environment.

Heat exchangers are used in many industries, including:

  • Waste water treatment
  • Refrigeration
  • Wine and beer making
  • Petroleum refining
  • Nuclear power

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The Importance of Drying Plastics

Dehumidifying or drying plastics in the process phase may be a important part of injection molding. Drying plastic resin utilized to reduce or eliminate complications that will be caused by an excessive amount of moisture in an exceedingly plastic material. The extent to that moisture affects the quality of a molded part is set by {the specific the precise the particular plastic resin being processed and therefore the supposed purpose of the part. this article can discuss 2 categories of resins as well as the benefits of drying plastic material.

Hygroscopic vs. Non-Hygroscopic

Each kind of resin contains a set of process characteristics that have a definite affinity to assemble moisture. These 2 groups of polymers discuss the distinction between hygroscopic and non-hygroscopic polymers.

Hygroscopic Polymers

These polymers include Nylon, ABS, Acrylic, PET, PBT, polyurethane, Polycarbonate, and many more. These resins absorb moisture internally and unleash moisture through the air. Any resin moving from storage to the molding machine usually needs drying because of hygroscopic properties. once the wet hygroscopic pellet is surrounded by a dry and hot setting for a sufficient amount of your time, the pressure outside the pellet is under the pressure inside the pellet. The moisture inside the pellet begins to migrate toward the area of low pressure outside the pellet. Eventually, the pellet becomes dry. Below are some characteristics of hygroscopic polymers.

  • They have a strong affinity to attract moisture.
  • Internal moisture cannot be removed with hot air alone.
  • Will absorb moisture into their molecular structure if exposed to ambient air. Must process quickly after drying.

Non-Hygroscopic Polymers

These polymers include PVC, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyethylene, and many more. These resins don’t absorb moisture internally into the pellet. However, moisture may be collected on the surface of the pellet. Applying heat becomes a very important a part of removing surface moisture once this happens. Below are characteristics of non-hygroscopic polymers.

  • Any moisture collected is on the surface of the pellet (adsorption).
  • Typical moisture collection is due to condensation.
  • Moisture is easily removed by passing a sufficient stream of warm air over the material.

Advantages of Drying Plastics

The moisture contained among the plastic may seem sort of a tiny aspect of processing, but if not controlled it will make it nearly impossible to provide quality plastic components. resin drying before process maintains the performance characteristics of your resin and ultimately your competitive position. Some advantages of drying plastics include:

  • Preventing Cosmetic Problems: Known as splay or silver streaking.
  • Preventing Hydrolysis: A chemical reaction that breaks the covalent binds in the polymer chain, reducing molecular weight of the polymer and significantly reducing mechanical properties.
  • Preventing Part Failure: When drying, if the maximum level of moisture appropriate for processing is not reached, premature part failure and structural defects can occur.

Again, we tend to dry hygroscopic resins to get the moisture out. a lot of importantly, it’s to ensure maximum polymer performance. we tend to produce parts for medical and different high-liability applications. We tend to perceive that if a wet resin is processed, we are going to be leaving a “fingerprint” on the part. If the part fails, tests may be done to examine if the polymer chains are the proper length.

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Drying Process in Ceramic Industries

Generally the term ‘ceramics’ (ceramic products) is utilized for inorganic materials with presumably some organic content, created from non-metallic compounds and made permanent by a firing method. In addition to clay primarily based materials, these days’ ceramics embrace a large number of products with a little fraction of clay or none at all. Ceramics may be glazed or unglazed, porous or glassy. Firing of ceramic bodies induces time-temperature transformation of the constituent minerals, typically into a combination of recent minerals and glassy phases. Characteristic properties of ceramic merchandise embrace high strength, wear resistance, long service life, chemical inertness and non-toxicity, resistance to heat and fire, (usually) electric resistance and generally also a particular porosity.

Two kinds of energy are utilized in the ceramic industry; electrical energy and chemical energy. The electrical energy is employed in 2 completely different ways; energy once utilized in the motor and fan of the machine, and thermal energy once utilized to heat the kilns and furnaces. The chemical energy of fossil fuel is all converted into thermal energy through combustion reaction. Energy utilized in the ceramic trade is predominantly occupied by fossil fuel energy. The drying method within the ceramic trade is that the greatest energy consumer second to the firing method. Drying suggests that loss of moisture from the surface of the substance by evaporation, and therefore the drying speed depends on the temperature and humidity.

Ceramic Manufacturing Process:
• Raw Materials Procurement & Weighing
The raw materials utilized in the manufacture of ceramics vary from relatively impure clay materials well-mined from natural deposits to ultrahigh purity powders ready by chemical synthesis. Naturally occurring raw materials utilized to manufacture ceramics embrace silica, sand, quartz, flint, silicates, and alumino silicates. the primary step within the method is to weigh the raw materials needed to manufacture a ceramic tile all sorts of every type of frit, feldspar and numerous clays. All the raw materials are accurately weighed, in order that the standard of the product may be stabilized.
Fine Grinding & Milling
The basic beneficiation processes contains crushing, grinding, and sizing or classification. Primary crushing is employed to reduce the dimensions of coarse materials, like clays, down to some one to five centimeters. The foremost common sorts of crushers used are jaw crushers, cone crushers, gyratory crushers, and roll crushers. Secondary crushing or grinding reduces particle size right down to someone millimeter in diameter. Fine grinding or milling reduces the particle size right down to as low as one.0 micrometer in diameter. Ball mills are the foremost usually used piece of equipment for milling. 
Filter Press
During the method to form clay and ceramic slurries used for the manufacture of dinnerware, insulators, china etc., the clay slurry goes through a dewatering step before any process and molding into the required. These slurries are very dense and heavy and usually need dewatering at 225 PSI feed pressure to get a solid cake.
Mixing ensures a standardized distribution of clay within the solution. It conjointly prevents the sedimentation of clay that is fascinating for the method of ceramic formation. pug Mills are most typically used for combination in ceramic production.
• Spray Drying
Ceramic tiles are usually shaped by dry pressing. Before pressing, several facilities granulate the ceramic mix to create a free-flowing powder, thereby improving handling and compaction. The foremost ordinarily used methodology of granulation is spray-drying. The slurry is injected into a drying chamber with hot gases. Because the hot gases are available in contact with the slurry, a powder is made and picked up during a cyclone or fabric filter. Spray dryers typically are gas fired and operate at temperatures of 70° to 570°C. When spray drying, the water content of the granules is between 35-40%.
• Powder Storage
The granules need to be kept in a storage bin for a couple of days so its composition becomes even a lot of homogeneous. This method makes the granules a lot of pliable and less doubtless to stay to the mould. The size of powder storage bin required is going to be determined by the production capability of the plant. Generally, the foremost appropriate size is capable of holding tons of plenty of powder.
• Shaping
In the forming step, the ceramic mix is consolidated and shaped to provide a cohesive body of the required form and size. Forming strategies may be classified as either dry forming, plastic molding, or wet forming. Once the composition of the powder becomes homogenized, it’s taken to the press wherever it’s shaped and squeezed below high pressure to create a biscuit or Greenware tile body.
• Glazing
Glazes resemble glass structure and texture. The aim of glazing is to supply a smooth, shiny surface that seals the ceramic body. Not all ceramics are glazed. Those who are glazed are often glazed before firing, or may be glazed when firing, followed by re firing to line the glaze.

• Speed Body Drying
The drying method within the ceramic industry is that the greatest energy consumer second to the firing method. Drying suggests that loss of moisture from the surface of the substance by evaporation, and therefore the drying speed depends on the temperature and humidity. Once the substance is dried and moisture is lost, particles are placed near, resulting in shrinkage.
• Firing
Firing is that the method by which ceramics are thermally consolidated into a dense, cohesive body composed of fine, uniform grains. This method is also remarked as sintering or densification. Ceramics usually are fired at 50-75% of absolutely the melting temperature of the material. Ceramic product are manufactured by pressure firing, that is comparable to the forming method of dry pressing except that the pressing is conducted at the firing temperature.
• Packing
The finished products are then packed and stored or shipped.

Two types of drying process done in the manufacturing of ceramic tiles:

  1. Drying through spray dryer
  2. Drying through vertical dryer
    To improve the utilization of the energy consuming in drying method. Here in ceramic tiles producing method the drying method is second most energy consuming method after the firing method. For currently regarding the energy consumption we’ve to analysis the method. Thus we have a tendency to visit the one company and analysis the producing method and from the analysis we have a tendency to do the mass balance and energy balance of drying method for the know about the energy consumption.
    We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for drying of ceramic in various products range from our wide experience. For any query write us at info@kerone.com or visit www.kerone.com

Artificial Intelligence in Chemical Industry

Chemicals are an important participant in our society. From automobiles and medicines to toys and clothes, they can be established in a numerous diversifications of everyday products. But the manufacturing of these substances can have unfavourable results on the environment, as well as the discharge of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.

Thankfully, even so, the chemical manufacturing industry has a new tool that could help lessen its environmental footprint: Artificial intelligence.

Just like other technologies, AI (Artificial Intelligence) comes with challenges, such as accountability, security, technological mistrust, and the displacement of human workers. These are only challenges that must be referred to support AI technology’s future. The collaborators must confirm that AI’s impact is a positive one by motivationally handling the challenges, while confirming the opportunities stays vacant.

Chemistry is a fertile ground for applying and developing AI technology. Areas of applications of AI and good systems are classified below.

  • Process control: several industries
  • Chemical synthesis and analysis
  • Manufacturing: planning and configuration
  • Waste minimization
  • Signal processing: several industries
  • Mineral exploration
  • Intelligent CAD
  • Instrumentation: monitoring and data analysis
  • Medical diagnosis and treatment
  • Chemo metrics

In Chemical industry a large amount Artificial Intelligence (A.I) is used in Pharmaceutical industry. In pharmaceutical industry A.I is utilized in numerous tasks like in Drug Discovery. Drug discovery frequently takes eternity to test compounds against samples of diseased cells. Discovering compounds that are biologically active and are worth investigating and need even more advance analysis. As computers are faster and accurate compared to traditional human examination and laboratory experiments in divulging new data sets, new and effective drugs can be made available sooner, while also lessens the operational costs integrated with the manual investigation of each compound.

Other than drug discovery Automated control process system [ACPS] are classified below.

  • Sensing process variables‟ value.
  • Transmission of signal to measuring element.
  • Measure process variable.
  • Presenting the value of the measured variable.
  • Set the value of the desired variable.
  • Comparison of desired and measured values.
  • Control signal transmission to final control element. and
  • Control of manipulated value.

Two applications of A.I in Pharmaceutical Industry are.

  • Formulation. (Eg; Controlled Release of tablets and Immediate Release of tablets)
  • In Product Development. (Eg; Optimization of Formulation)

Hence, Pharmaceutical Industry can urge the innovation by using technological advancements. The recent technological progress that comes to mind would be artificial intelligence, development of computer systems able to perform tasks normally requiring human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages. Artificial intelligence can be of real help in analysing the data and presenting results that would help out in decision making, saving Human effort, time, and money and thus help save Lives.

The bigger the healthcare sector gets more refined and more technologically advanced infrastructure it will need. Artificial intelligence is the design and application of algorithms for examination of swotting and clarification of data.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for Artificial Intelligence in various products range from our wide experience. For any query write us at info@kerone.com or visit www.kerone.com.