Objectives of Pilot Plant Scale Up Techniques

Plant: – It is a place where the 5 M’s like money, material; man, method and machine are brought together for the manufacturing of the products.

Pilot Plant: – It is the part of the pharmaceutical industry where a lab scale formula is transformed into a viable product by development of liable and practical procedure of manufacture.

Scale-up: – The art for designing of prototype using the data obtained from the pilot plant model. Definitions R & D Production Pilot Plant.

Objectives of Pilot Plant

“Find mistakes on small scale and make profit on large scale.”

  • To produce physically and chemically stable therapeutic dosage forms.
  • Review of the processing equipment.
  • Guidelines for productions and process control.
  • Evaluation and validation for process and equipment’s.
  • To identify the critical features of the process.
  • To provide master manufacturing formula.
  • To try the process on a model of proposed plant before committing large sum of money on a production unit.
  • Examination of the formula to determine its ability to withstand Batch-scale and process modification.
  • To avoid the scale-up problems.

Pilot plant scale-up techniques involve consistent manufacture of associate experimental formulation on high-speed production instrumentation, during a efficient manner. It’s a part district region locality vicinity section of the pharmaceutical trade wherever identical processes used throughout analysis and Development (R&D) of dosage forms are applied to completely different output volumes; typically larger than that obtained throughout R&D.

In each emerging pharmaceutical industry or an already existing one, there’s continually a desire to possess an intermediate batch scale representing procedures and simulating that used for industrial producing. This can be achieved by determining the flexibility of formula to resist batch-scale and process modification.

There is equally a requirement for equipment analysis and validation to make sure that the aim of your company that is the production of the drug in question isn’t defeated. For a pilot scale up to achieve success a product should be capable of being processed in a massive scale typically with equipment that solely remotely resembles that utilized in the event laboratory. the concept is that you simply perceive what makes these processes similar, determine and eliminate several scale-up issues before massive giant sum of money on a production unit.

Maintain the chemical attributes of the product, its quality and effectiveness even though the assembly processes are changed as a results of sample size increase, and equipment changes.

Pilot plant scale-up must include:

  • A close examination of the formula to determine its ability to withstand large scale and process modification.
  • A review of a range of relevant processing equipment to determine which would be most compatible with the formulation as well as the most economical, simple, and reliable in producing the product.
  • What happens during pilot plant scale-up?
  • Determination of the availability of raw materials that consistently meet the specifications required to produce the product.
  • Determination of the physical space required and the layout of related functions to provide short term and long term efficiency.
  • Evaluation, validation, and finalizing of production and process controls.
  • Issuing of adequate records and reports to support Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) and provide the historical development of the production formulation process, equipment train, and specifications
  • Development and validation of meaningful product reprocessing procedures.
  • Identification of all critical features of a scale-up process, so that it can be adequately monitored to provide assurance that the process is under control and that the process at each level of the scale-up maintains the specified attributes originally intended.
  • Production rate and future market requirements.

Pilot plant scale-up is of practical interest to formulation scientist/ production managers and will be thought of from the origin of a development project. this is often be} as a result of a method using constant style of equipment can perform quite otherwise once the scale of the equipment and the quantity of material concerned is considerably increased.

The chemical attributes of the product, its quality and effectuality should be maintained despite the fact that the assembly processes is changed as a results of sample size increase, and equipment changes. You must conjointly bear in mind that pilot plant scale-up, in itself, doesn’t guarantee a smooth transition.

A well-defined method might fail quality assurance tests fully manufacturing scale even once generating an ideal product in both the laboratory and therefore the pilot plant.

Significance Of Pilot Plant/ Importance Of Pilot Plant:

  • Examination of formulae.
  • Review of range of relevant processing equipment’s.
  • Production rate adjustment.
  • Idea about physical space required.
  • Appropriate records and reports to support GMP.
  • Identification of critical features to maintain quality.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for pilot plant scale up techniques and technologies in various products range from our wide experience.

Drying Technologies for Mineral Raw Materials

Drying may be an important aspect of mineral processing; throughout the journey from ore to end product, the flexibility to manage moisture content helps to reduce shipping prices, streamline downstream process, and manufacture a refined product.

While mineral dryers could appear a similar as different industrial dryers, they’re usually designed to withstand additional rigorous demands compared to several different industries; because of the character of minerals, mineral dryers are subject to systematically harsh processing conditions, necessitating a dryer with heavy-duty components and materials of construction.

The diverse nature of minerals and associated processing techniques will demand drying at any and all stages of mineral processing, from raw ore to concentrate, all the thanks to finished product. Minerals that usually need a drying step throughout processing include:

  • Alumina
  • Barite
  • Basalt
  • Bauxite
  • Borax
  • Chromite
  • Clay
  • Ferrous minerals
  • Fluorite
  • Graphite
  • Gypsum
  • Iron ore
  • Limestone
  • Lithium
  • Phosphorus
  • Potash
  • Pumice
  • Magnesium
  • Manganese
  • Molybdenum
  • Rutile
  • Sand
  • Silica
  • Struvite
  • Talc
  • Vermiculite
  • Zinc

Extracted ore, regardless of the mineral, is usually first crushed, and so must undergo a beneficiation process to get rid of the unwanted impurities. Beneficiation will vary considerably from one ore kind to the next. In most cases, however, beneficiation is administered through a wet process that necessitates a subsequent drying step. Mineral drying at this stage offers many advantages.

Drying raw ore makes transportation rather more economic by removing the majority of the moisture from the material, thus producers don’t seem to be paying to move water weight and may utilize fewer transportation units.

Moisture in raw material feedstock is problematic in downstream process, because it will increase the potential for build-up. Build-up successively has the potential to clog equipment, stall the operation, or maybe damaging equipment because of corrosion or abrasion. Depending on the mineral being processed, damage may be worsened by the material’s distinctive properties. Such is that the case with mineral, which might harden in place due to its cementitious nature.

In general, the less moisture content a material has, the better it’s to handle.

A moisture-rich material will wreak disturbance on the flow of operation as material moves through hoppers, bins, transfer points, conveyors, and more. Drying greatly improves material flow ability, avoiding such problems.

The extent to that a mineral should be dried is extremely variable, differing established on the kind of mineral, characteristics found at the particular deposit, subsequent processing techniques, and also the desired end product.

In addition to preparing the ore for process, drying is additionally important in manufacturing several end products, notably when the mineral are going to be pelletized for end market use.

As a post-processing step, drying accomplishes a number of objectives:

  • Improved Economics
  • Ensures Product Integrity

Improved Economics – As with raw ore, reducing the moisture content of the end product conjointly reduces transportation prices, still as rising storage, packaging, and handling social science.

Ensures Product Integrity – Drying is additionally essential in ensuring product integrity is maintained. each product contains a distinctive vary (or even precise percentage) at that it’ll maintain its form; too dry and also the material is more likely to degrade and cause dirt problems (attrition); too wet and also the material might foster caking or harbour mould growth. Reaching the precise moisture content for a given material ensures that the product can keep in its intended form throughout its lifecycle.

Rotary dryers are the industrial dryer of selection for mineral drying applications. Mineral drum dryer design varies supported the distinctive characteristics of the mineral to be processed. In general, however, one will assume that a dryer meant for mineral processing can meet certain objectives needed by the industry:

Materials of construction must be rugged, and carefully selected to withstand constant abrasion and corrosion.

The dryer must accommodate a high throughput.

The dryer should be manufactured with heavy components (motor, gears, bearings, etc.) to be appropriate for reliable long-term mineral processing.

Outside of those issues, the characteristics of the mineral to be processed will mostly dictate the dryer design, influencing factors like retention time, length and diameter, air flow configuration and additional. When process processing, as an example, a co-current air flow is utilized to avoid excess attrition and discolouring of the product that would occur with a counter-current configuration.

The variation in mineral varieties and characteristics usually deserves a mineral dryer testing program to assess however the material can respond to drying and subsequently, however the dryer should be designed to work best with the material.

In this setting, batch- and pilot-scale testing are conducted to assemble initial process information and scale up the method to help within the design of a commercial-scale mineral dryer. Numerous particle characteristics will be targeted throughout testing to refine the product and guarantee an best drying solution.

The ability to manage the moisture content of a mineral – whether or not raw ore or end product – is essential to the mineral processing industry, providing economic, handling, and process benefits and permitting a premium product to be produced.

Rotary dryers have proven to be an ideal industrial dryer for meeting the demanding processing conditions required by the industry.

In addition to our custom dryers, we have a tendency to additionally provide a large array of mineral processing equipment, still as batch and pilot testing capabilities for process and products design. For additional information on our mineral processing capabilities.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for vacuum drying in various products range from our wide experience.

Importance of Heat Exchanger in Food Processing Industry

A Heat exchanger is a systematic device constructed for the successful heat transfer between two fluids of non-identical temperatures. The media maybe separated through a solid wall, to intercept mixing, or they may be in direct contact. Heat exchangers are fully used in food processing industry, dairy industry, biochemical processing, pharmaceuticals, chemical plants and petroleum plants to name a few. The use of heat exchangers in bioprocess industry is ubiquitous; from high temperature pasteurization to low temperature freezing.

Heat exchangers have long been a required tool for pasteurization, sterilization, and other food processing needs. And while the technology is fully fledged, there’s still enough of innovation occurring.

First, a segment of background. Clearly speaking, a heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between two or more fluids. In the food and beverage industry, heat exchangers are frequently used to lessen or kill microbials, thereby making products safe for consumption and extending their shelf life. A heat exchanger may also be utilized to heat or cool products prior to filling, drying, concentration, or other processes.

Heat exchangers can be utilized in food Industry as a process of cooling down different products in the industry. Huge number of products like hazelnut paste and other types of food pastes are needed to be cooled down or heated up in order to be processed further. For this process Heat exchanger can be utilized. The type of Heat Exchanger utilized is a Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger or SSHE. SSHE is planned for processing various high textured materials and heat exchanging a variety of heat sensitive products like fruit pulps. The continuous scraping action put forth on surface ensures uniform heating of the contents, prevents fouling. It is also stiffly used for materials that solidify at the wall. Wide variations of SSHE have been evolved for the same purpose. Dynamic Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger, Rotary Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger, Conventional Design Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger, Alternate Blades Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger are a few studied. It has been researched and concluded that ASSHE is highly effective in food paste heating and cooling and the amount of heat transfer can be manipulated by changing various parameters of the Heat Exchanger. Studies show that the A-SSHE gives heat transfer coefficient values almost twice that of an equivalent C-SSHE.

Particular heat exchanger designs are better suited to products with certain attributes. Qualities like viscosity and particle size can help recognize which type of exchanger is best for any given need.

While various types of heat exchangers are used in the food industry, that the most general are plate heat exchangers. “Plate heat exchangers have been around for a long time, “They’re one of the most systematic methods of heat transfer for fluid products.”

On a basic level, plate exchangers contain multiple plates installed inside a frame. Fluid passes through the plates, allowing for heat transfer from the hot to the cold side. Plate heat exchangers must provide a adequate velocity across the plate to successfully transfer heat while also controlling pressure drops. Plate heat exchangers are all based on the common general principles. But they can be customized for various users and functions.

Run time challenge is sizing and design. Accurate sizing of a heat exchanger ensures the longest possible run. And when it comes to design, a good one can make all the difference. An even flow across the plates, for instance, helps to amplify operation time.

Food safety and sanitation best practices are a utmost focus for the food industry — now even more so, as FSMA deadlines approach. Clearly, part of a good hygiene program is making sure that equipment not only is easy to clean, but also stays as clean as possible for as long as possible.

“For plates, cleanability is tremendously dependent on flow rate. You want to have a high enough flow rate to provide good velocity and turbulence to eliminate whatever’s built up on the plates.” fat-free products, which act diversely from their full-fat counterparts

Fat-free products, which act diversely from their full-fat counterparts. During the fat-free craze, engineers had to adjust the design of heat exchangers to compensate for those properties.

Today’s smoothie trend presents a diverse challenge, indistinguishable to other products that may accommodate pulp or particulate. While some plate heat exchangers can’t be utilized for such products, Free Flow plates are planned to process them successfully.

“We have a Free Flow plate with an even 5-millimeter gap where the product flows, “The exchangers can handle more fine particulate, so products like pulpy juices, smoothies, and sauces can be processed on a plate heat exchanger instead of processors having to go with another technology that isn’t as systematic.”

As heat exchanger technology carry on to the rise, we at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for Heat Exchanger from our wide experience.

Microbiological Analysis and Testing of food products

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that inhibit, create, or contaminate food. This includes the study of microorganisms causing food spoilage; pathogens which will cause illness (especially if food is wrongly cooked or stored); microbes utilized to manufacture fermented foods such as cheese, yogurt, bread, beer, and wine; and microbes with different helpful roles, like manufacturing probiotics.

Food safety is a major focus of food microbiology. Numerous agents of disease and pathogens are readily transmitted via food which incorporates bacteria and viruses. Microbial toxins are also possible contaminants of food; however, microorganisms and their products may also be used to combat these pathogenic microbes. Probiotic bacteria, together with those that produce bacteriocins can eliminate and inhibit pathogens. On other side, purified bacteriocins such as nisin can be added directly to food products. Finally, bacteriophages, viruses that only infect bacteria can be used to eliminate bacterial pathogens. Thorough preparation of food, including proper cooking, eliminates most bacteria and viruses. However, toxins manufactured by contaminants may not be liable to change to non-toxic forms by heating or cooking the contaminated food due to other safety conditions.

Fermentation is one among the methods to preserve food and alter its quality. Yeast, particularly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is used to leaven bread, brew beer and create wine. Certain bacteria, as well as lactic acid bacteria, are utilized to produce yogurt, cheese, hot sauce, pickles, fermented sausages and dishes like kimchi. A general effect of these fermentations is that the food product is no that hospitable to other microorganisms, as well as pathogens and spoilage-causing microorganisms, thus extending the food’s shelf-life. Some cheese varieties also need molds to ripen and improve their characteristic flavors.

Several microbially manufactured biopolymers are utilized in the food industry:


Alginates can be utilized as thickening agents. Although listed here under the category ‘Microbial polysaccharides‘, commercial alginates are currently only manufactured by extraction from brown seaweeds like Laminaria hyperborea or L. japonica.

Poly-γ-glutamic acid

Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) manufactured by various strains of Bacillus has potential applications as a thickener in the food industry.

To ensure safety of food products, microbiological tests like testing for pathogens and spoilage organisms are needed. This way the risk of contamination under general use conditions can be inspected and food poisoning outbreaks can be prevented. Testing of food products and ingredients is important along the whole supply chain as possible flaws of products can happen at every stage of manufacturing. Apart from finding spoilage, microbiological tests can also determine germ content; verify yeasts and molds, and salmonella. For salmonella, scientists are also making rapid and portable technologies capable of identifying unique variants of Salmonella.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a rapid and cheap method to generate numbers of copies of a DNA fragment at a particular band. For that reason, scientists are utilizing PCR to find various kinds of viruses or bacteria, such as HIV and anthrax based on their unique DNA patterns. Various kits are commercially available to help in food pathogen nucleic acids extraction, PCR detection, and differentiation. The verification of bacterial strands in food products is very important to everyone in the world, for it helps prevent the happening of food borne illness. Therefore, PCR is recognized as a DNA detector in order to amplify and trace the presence of pathogenic strands in different processed food.

The relationship between microbes, the human microbiome, diet, and food safety has played a critical role in the improvement of the new food industry with its plethora of choice and variety and the consequent developments in our overall quality of life.

Our knowledge of just how this complex balancing act contributes to the improvement of human society through the most basic of means, our food, has continued to improve over the last several thousand years. From the earliest fermentation of beer and production of bread to the probiotic foods which have been appearing on supermarket shelves over the last two decades, the application of microbiology to the food industry will certainly continue well into the future.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for Microbiology from our wide experience.

Feature and Application of Spray Drying Process

Spray drying has been employed in the food industry for concerning one hundred fifty years and is responsible for creating a number of the foremost essential ingredients and product within the food industry today—such as milk, instant low, and fine-grained flavors. Learn the key steps within the spray drying method, the highest advantages of this method, and the variables you should know for creating the perfect powder.

We encounter spray dried ingredients and food products all the time. Whenever a liquid has been converted to a shelf-stable powder, there’s a more better chance that spray drying was used. The most usually spray dried foods include:

  • Milk Powders
  • Dried Eggs
  • Instant Coffees
  • Instant Teas
  • Dried Fruit Juices
  • Honey Powders
  • Molasses Powders
  • Powdered Flavors

While there are many drying processes on the market for food, the spray drying method is distinguished by its unique equipment that enables for speedy drying with minimal heat exposure. In spray drying, a liquid is sprayed through atomizer into a chamber that contains streams of hot air. The moisture quickly evaporates, leaving behind solid powder particles that fall to bottom of the chamber.

Spray drying is ideal for heat-sensitive materials and whenever a free-flowing, uniform powder is needed. Whereas alternative drying techniques generally produces flakes that then should be ground to size, spray dryers create a free-flowing powder with a slim size distribution, making a subsequent grinding step unnecessary. Furthermore, spray drying is method of choice for commercial-scale encapsulation applications and is utilized to encapsulate flavors, carotenoids, and lipids.

The benefits of spray drying are:

  • Appropriate for heat-sensitive foods
  • Manufactures fairly uniform particle sizes
  • Makes a free-flowing powder
  • Efficient at encapsulation

Spray drying is a unique method of drying that depends on atomization to create a uniform, free-flowing powder and permits heat exposure to be kept to a minimum. The spray drying process consists of the following steps:

  • Preparation of the liquid or slurry
  • Adding the liquid feed to the spray dryer
  • Atomization of the liquid feed to create droplets
  • Drying of the droplets in a heated air stream
  • Collection of the dried particles

Two Characteristics of Spray Drying are:

  • Atomization
  • Drying Kinetics


Atomization is the distinguishing feature of the spray drying process and plays a critical role in determining the quality of the finished product. It involves generating a vast range of droplets from a liquid stream, thus greatly increasing its surface area and allowing faster drying rate. For example, 1 m3 of a liquid can form 2×1012 droplets with a surface area of 60,000 m2.

Atomization can be accomplished through single-fluid nozzle, two-fluid nozzle, or rotary disc atomizers which manufacture droplet sizes from 10 to 500 µm (ideally 100 to 200 µm), depending on the feed consistency and composition.

When the atomized droplets come in contact with the heated air currents entering the chamber, a series of simultaneous heat and mass transfer processes takes place. Heat is transferred to the product to evaporate moisture, and mass is transferred as a vapor into the surrounding gas.

Drying Kinetics:

The drying method can be described as having two phases: the constant-rate period and the falling-rate period. In the constant-rate period, moisture evaporates quickly from a saturated surface via diffusion through the stationary air film at a rate sufficient to maintain saturation. In the falling-rate period and as moisture removal progresses, the solute dissolved in the liquid reaches a concentration beyond its saturation concentration to form a thin shell at the droplet surface.

Kinetically, this stage marks a transformation from low- to high-temperature drying. Following this, and depending on inlet temperature, feed consistency, and atomization variables, the droplets may follow one of two principal pathways, creating either small-dense or large-hollow particles. Dried particles are recovered with separation devices such as cyclones and bag filters or are scrubbed for further collection followed by cooling and packaging.

A number of variables influence the characteristics of the finished powder, including feed properties, type of atomizer used, and airflow factors

Optimizations of these variables are often achieved through a good understanding of the spray drying method to produce particles free of imperfections and with the required properties.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for Spray Drying from our wide experience.

Microwave Technology for Dehydration

Dehydrating is one amongst the most common processes in industry. This executed is enforced by numerous techniques, like freeze-drying. It’s an energy-consuming method. Microwave sources are a decent option to provide the energy dehydration for this method. In reality, it’s microwave-assisted dehydration. The microwave sources will be delivered around some kilowatts. Electromagnetic energy is transformed into thermal energy because of the interaction of electromagnetic fields and materials.

In addition to providing energy, the microwave-assisted dehydration is time-saving. This technique is quick because of penetrating electromagnetic fields within the material. It leads to volumetrically heating rather than heating from the surface of the material in standard ways. Usually, the frequency of electromagnetic fields is 2450 MHz that is allotted by regulatory commissions in dielectric heating ways. Within the following, the mechanism of this technique is represented. All relations governing the transfer of mass and heat are mentioned. The way to transfer and dissipate energy is represented. Dielectric properties of various materials are listed. The effective parameters in crucial insulator properties are mentioned.

Population growth of human societies leads to increasing the demand for needs like food, clothing, housing, etc. Meeting them needs new industrial ways alternatively traditional ones. Manufacturing of foodstuff is contains in this principle. Today, totally different processes are being done on the mineral, vegetable, and animal product. A number of them are pasteurization, sterilization, conservation, etc. every of them is employed for a selected purpose. Throughout these processes, physical, chemical, and biological changes occur. They have an effect on the standard of foodstuff (color, flavor, volume).

Drying is the most typical method to increase the life of food product to form them easier to keep up. Meanwhile, microwave technology has achieved a major position among alternative ways in food business. Not only is that this technique utilized in food business however additionally in pharmaceutical business and medical sciences, for removing water from aqueous solutions and conserving the blood, bone, and skin.

In conventional technique for drying foodstuff, it’s heated, sometimes by flowing hot air, to evaporate its moisture. Also, the heating may be done by alternative ways from direct solar radiation to using microwave energy. In dehydration technique, removing the moisture content of material is completed by sublimation of water molecules with internal heating once freezing the material and making a vacuum. Compared with typical ways, it causes little irreversible changes in food and so keeps the standard of product at a superb level. Rehydration, color (browning), and volume (volume reduction and consequently shrinkage) are key parameters in crucial the standard of foodstuff and are thought-about in. low temperature during this technique helps to prevent most biological reactions, and therefore it’s appropriate for dehydrating heat-sensitive material like biological product. However, this technique is pricey. it’s appropriate for valuable foodstuffs like coffee.

Microwave energy is utilized to defrosting meat. It reduces the desired time from hours to a couple of minutes. Also, it’s utilized in sterilizing some heat-sensitive foods and cacao bean roasting.

Considered the conventional and microwave-assisted freeze-drying method. It showed that the drying time is less than 20% for microwave-assisted freeze-drying method because of volumetrically heating in this method.

Drying (or dehydrating) is removing moisture content from a material. This phenomenon, that needed phase transition in water content of material, needs plenty of energy.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for microwave dehydration systems in various products range from our wide experience.

Different Types of Annealing Techniques

Annealing is a heat treatment method that alters the microstructure of a material to alter its mechanical or electrical properties. Typically, in steels, annealing is employed to reduce hardness, increase plasticity and help eliminate internal stresses. Annealing may be a generic term and should refer to subcritical, intermediate or full annealing in a very type of atmospheres.

The process of heating a metal or alloy to an acceptable temperature for an explicit amount of time and so slowly cooling (generally with the chamber cooling) is termed annealing.

The essence of annealing is that the transformation of the pearlite when heating the steel to austenitizing. Once annealing, the tissue is near to that after equilibrium.

Purpose of Annealing:

  • Reduce the hardness of steel, improve malleability, and facilitate machining and cold deformation process.
  • The chemical composition and organization of uniform steel, refining grain, to enhance the performance of steel or to arrange for extinction.
  • Eliminate internal stress and method hardening to stop deformation and cracking.
  • Annealing and normalizing are primarily used for making ready heat treatment.

For components with low stress and low performance, annealing and normalizing can even be used as final heat treatment.

According to the heating temperature, the commonly used annealing method is divided into:

Phase change recrystallization annealing above the critical temperature:

  • Complete annealing
  • Diffusion annealing
  • Incomplete annealing
  • Spherification annealing

Annealing below the critical temperature:

  • Recrystallization annealing
  • Stress annealing

The selection of the annealing method generally has the following principles:

  • The various steels of the hypoeutectoid structure usually choose complete annealing.
  • In order to shorten the annealing time, isothermal annealing will be used.
  • The spheroidizing annealing is mostly utilized in hypereutectic steel.
  • When the request isn’t high, you’ll opt for not to complete annealing.
  • Tool steel, bearing steel is usually used spheroidized annealing.
  • Cold extrusion and cold upsetting components of low carbon steel or medium carbon steel are typically used spherified annealing.
  • In order to eliminate the method hardening, recrystallization annealing is used.
  • So as to eliminate the interior stress caused by numerous process, stress annealing is used.
  • In order to enhance the inhomogeneity of the structure and chemical composition of high-quality steel, diffusion annealing is usually used.

Importance of Annealing:

Annealing is utilized to reverse the consequences of work hardening, which might occur throughout processes like bending, cold forming or drawing. If the material becomes too hard it can make working impossible or end in cracking.

By heating the material higher than the recrystallization temperature, it’s created a lot of ductile and thus able to be worked all over again. Annealing conjointly removes stresses that may occur once welds solidify. Hot rolled steel is additionally shaped and formed by heating it higher than the recrystallization temperature. Whereas steel and alloy steel hardening is common, alternative metals also can benefit from the method, like aluminium, brass, and copper.

Metal fabricators use annealing to help produce complicated components, keeping the material workable by returning them on the point of their pre-worked state. The method is vital in maintaining ductility and reducing hardness after cold working. Additionally, some metals are toughened to extend their electrical conduction.

Annealing with Alloys:

Annealing will be administered with alloys, with a partial or full toughen being the sole ways used for non-heat treatable alloys. The exception to this is with the 5000 series alloys, which might tends to low temperature stabillisation treatments.

Alloys are annealed at temperatures of between 300-410°C, depending on the alloy, with heating times starting from zero.5 to three hours, depending on the scale of the work piece and therefore the variety of alloy. Alloys ought to be cooled at a most rate of 20°C per hour till the temperature is reduced to 290°C, after that the cooling rate isn’t necessary.


The main benefits of annealing are in however the method improves the workability of a cloth, increasing toughness, reducing hardness and increasing the plasticity and machinability of a metal.

The heating and cooling method additionally reduces the bearableness of metals whereas enhancing their magnetic properties and electrical conductivity.


The main disadvantage with annealing is that it is a time intense procedure, counting on that materials are being annealed. Materials with high temperature necessities will take an extended time to cool down sufficiently, particularly if they’re being left to cool down naturally inside an annealing furnace.

Annealing is utilized across a range of industries wherever metals need to be worked into advanced structures or worked on many times.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for annealing techniques in various products range from our wide experience.

Moisture Analysis in the Pharmaceutical Industry

Moisture is a crucial parameter in the manufacture of bulk solid pharmaceuticals. The producing method of pricey medicine is usually sophisticated, and through a method that has crucial stages that occur over many days, quick and correct determination of moisture content is important.

Generally, moisture analysis needs to be performed in product and process development, as well as during manufacturing to specify and control the maximum allowable moisture content at each step. Knowing the moisture content at each step is part of the very careful process control required during manufacture.

Several drying ways are utilized for moisture analyses, including mathematical determination established on infrared detection and chemical titration. The Karl Fischer technique involves adding a reagent to the sample that reacts with the water present to manufacture a non-conductive chemical. However, this solely provides a reliable measure of moisture content if most of the moisture is due to water. A sample containing very little water, however high levels of alternative volatiles, can give a low moisture reading in a Karl Fischer titration, once in reality it still contains a major quantity of moisture.

There is a large list of properties of pharmaceutical product that are influenced by moisture content, and directly have an effect on how tablets are manufactured. This contains chemical stability, crystal structure, compaction, powder flow, lubricity, dissolution rate, and polymer film permeability.

The presence of moisture affects the consistency and stability of tablets. an excessive amount of moisture can cause an agglomeration of powder particles and a poor crumbly tablet; insufficient moisture can cause the tablet to fall apart. Fine-grained excipients might fail to flow if they’re too wet, and a few active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) would possibly crystallize or change shape if there’s an excessive amount of moisture. Solid dosage forms are created utilizing a vast range of processes as well as freeze drying, fluid bed drying, compaction, granulation, and extrusion. All of those operations rely on the quantity and the state of water present. Moisture can even influence the chemical/physical properties of individual active ingredients and excipients.

That is why it’s essential to analyze moisture content throughout manufacture and understand how moisture content affects every individual step throughout method development in order to establish specifications and parameter limits. 

The thermo gravimetric technique of moisture analysis is usually accepted as the most reliable. though numerous means of heating the sample have been utilized to try and improve accuracy, infrared radiation remains one among the most popular drying techniques.

On exposure of the sample to infrared radiation, the surface of the sample is heated 1st. The energy is then conducted from the surface through the complete volume of the sample. this point for the heat to conduct throughout the whole sample has been the limiting factor of standard infrared loss-on-drying moisture analyzers. If the sample has high dielectric properties, the drying time can increase. This result is compounded by the partial reflection of the infrared energy, preventing efficient heat transfer.

Since effective moisture determination depends on the speed at which measurements are obtained, this absorption delay makes it impossible to see the moisture content of high-moisture samples utilizing standard infrared loss-on-drying analyzers during a production atmosphere.

In addition, it’s impossible to make sure that the heat has effectively permeated through the whole sample since the temperature measuring is created in the cavity instead of rather than sample itself. This carries the chance that moisture remains in the middle of the sample, giving an underestimation of the moisture content. Conversely, the surface of the sample continues to be heated for the whole time required for the heat to be absorbed throughout the sample that might lead to scorching of those areas.

Furthermore, the analyzers can’t be used directly on the manufacturing line, because of the need for a fume hood to get rid of the water vapor and different volatiles. This necessitates a delay whereas samples are transported to the analyser, therefore any production parameters that need real-time feedback won’t be optimally controlled, probably impacting product quality and variability.

Heating utilizing halogen components has been adopted in preference to standard infrared loss-on-drying moisture analyzers since the best heating temperature may be achieved more quickly. Halogen drying, however, still carries the danger of uneven heat exposure which may undermine the results obtained.

For manufacturers, it’s essential to think about the impact of moisture in bulk materials additionally because the finished product. Moisture content fluctuates from batch-to-batch, and to attain consistency in formulation there should be a reliable technique to see moisture content accurately. To be effective, moisture determination strategies should be quick, repeatable, and precise.

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Drying of Food Materials by Microwave Energy

Microwave energy has very successful application in the field of food processing particularly for food drying to preserve the quality of the precious food materials. Various food materials dried using microwave energy was extensively reviewed. Microwave drying appears to be a viable drying method for the rapid drying of food materials. It was noticed that at the higher microwave output power considerably lower drying time took place. The application of pulsed microwave energy was found more efficient than the continuous application. The microwave-vacuum drying could reduce drying time of vegetable leaves by around 80-90%, compared with the hot air drying. Microwave drying maintained a good green color close to that of the original fresh green leaves with surface sterilization in most of the vegetables. The microwave heating of vegetable seed reduces the moisture content and anti-nutritional factor with maintaining the natural color of the valuable seed.

Drying is the oldest and traditional methods of food preservation and is the most widely used technique of preservation, which converts the food into light weight, easily transportable and storable product. Although the origin of drying goes back to antiquity, there is a constant interest and technological improvements in the process of drying keeping this mode of preservation still as new. The specific objective of drying is to remove moisture as quickly as possible at a temperature that does not seriously affect the quality of the food. Drying can be accomplished by a number of traditional and advanced techniques.

Microwave heating is based on the transformation of alternating electromagnetic field energy into thermal energy by affecting the polar molecules of a material. Many molecules in food (such as water and fat) are electric dipoles, meaning that they have a positive charge at one end and a negative charge at the other, and therefore, they rotate as they try to align themselves with the alternating electric field induced by the microwave rays. The rapid movement of the bipolar molecules creates friction and results in heat dissipation in the material exposed to the microwave radiation. Microwave heating is most efficient on water (liquid) and much less on fats and sugars which have less molecular dipole moment.

In drying of food materials, the aim is to eliminate moisture from food materials without affecting their physical and chemical structure. It is also important to preserve the food products and increase their storage stability which can be accomplished by drying. Microwave drying is a newer addition to the family of dehydration methods.

In Microwave drying tomato slice was sampled, from the starting of the drying the change in the sample weight was recorded at the time intervals of 2 minutes. The drying tests were terminated when the moisture content indicated 10%. The final moisture content of each sample was measured in order to calculate the moisture content at each weighing interval. Among several subjective quality attributes of dried tomato slices the colour is an important one which indicates the level of effects of different drying methods or conditions.

Dried fruits are widely used as components in many food formulations such as pastry, confectionery products, ice cream, frozen desserts and yogurt. Among them, dried apples are a significant raw material for many food products. The drying process was progressed through two stages, in the first stage the samples were put in a microwave oven until drying took place mainly in constant rate period; approximately 55% of the water was removed in this period. After that the forced draft oven was used until the apple samples reached the final moisture content. The second stage, the apple samples were put in forced draft oven to reach the final moisture content. For one hour or two hours the value of the drying constant increased with increased microwave output power. The change in color values was dependent on the pretreatment. The 45% sugar solution showed decrease drying rate than the other treatment. The increasing on the density power (W/g) the drying rate increased by 35%.

Many new dimensions came up in drying technology to reduce the energy utilization and operational cost. Selective and volumetric heating effects, microwaves bring new characteristics such as increased rate of drying, enhanced final product quality and improved energy consumption. Combination drying with an initial conventional drying process followed by a microwave finish or microwave vacuum process has proven to reduce drying time while improving product quality and minimizing energy requirements. However, several factors should be taken into consideration when developing drying system for the fruits and vegetables.

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Fundamentals of Thermal Radiations

Consider a hot object that is suspended in an evacuated chamber whose walls are at room temperature. The hot object will eventually cool down and reach thermal equilibrium with its surroundings. This mechanism is radiation. Radiation transfer occurs in solids as well as liquids and gases. But heat transfer through an evacuated space can occur only by radiation. For example, the energy of the sun reaches the earth by radiation. It is interesting that radiation heat transfer can occur between two bodies separated by a medium colder than both bodies. The theoretical foundation of radiation was established in 1864 by physicist James Clerk Maxwell, Who postulated that accelerated charges or changing electric currents give rise to electric and magnetic fields. These rapidly moving fields are called electromagnetic waves or electromagnetic radiation.

Thermal Radiation

Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of particles in matter. All matter with a temperature greater than absolute zero emits thermal radiation. Particle motion results in charge-acceleration or dipole oscillation which produces electromagnetic radiation.

Infrared radiation emitted by animals (detectable with an infrared camera) and cosmic microwave background radiation are examples of thermal radiation.

If a radiation object meets the physical characteristics of a black body in thermodynamic equilibrium, the radiation is called blackbody radiation.[1] Planck’s law describes the spectrum of blackbody radiation, which depends solely on the object’s temperature. Wien’s displacement law determines the most likely frequency of the emitted radiation, and the Stefan–Boltzmann law gives the radiant intensity.

Thermal radiation is also one of the fundamental mechanisms of heat transfer. That is, everything around us such as walls, furniture, and our friends constantly emits (and absorbs) radiation. The type of electromagnetic radiation that is pertinent to heat transfer is the thermal radiation emitted as a result of energy transitions of molecules, atoms, and electrons of a substance. Thermal radiation is continuously emitted by all matter whose temperature is above absolute zero.

Thus, thermal radiation includes the entire visible and infrared (IR) radiation as well as a portion of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

There are 4 main properties that characterize thermal radiation:

  • Thermal radiation emitted by a body at any temperature consists of a wide range of frequencies. The frequency distribution is given by Planck’s law of black-body radiation for an idealized emitter.
  • The dominant frequency (or color) range of the emitted radiation shifts to higher frequencies as the temperature of the emitter increases.
  • The total amount of radiation of all frequency increases steeply as the temperature rises; it grows, where the absolute temperature of the body.
  • The rate of electromagnetic radiation emitted at a given frequency is proportional to the amount of absorption that it would experience by the source, a property known as reciprocity. Thus, a surface that absorbs more red lights thermally radiates more red lights.

Thermal radiation is one of the three principal mechanisms of heat transfer. It entails the emission of a spectrum of electromagnetic radiation due to an object’s temperature. Other mechanisms are convection and conduction.

Radiation heat transfer is characteristically different from the other two in that it does not require a medium and, in fact it reaches maximum efficiency in a vacuum. Electromagnetic radiation has some proper characteristics depending on the frequency and wavelengths of the radiation. The phenomenon of radiation is not yet fully understood.

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