Different Types of Sterilization Process

Sterilization can be accomplished by an amalgamation of heat, chemicals, irradiation, high pressure and filtration such as steam under pressure, dry heat, ultraviolet radiation, gas vapour sterilants, chlorine dioxide gas etc. Successful sterilization strategies are necessary for working in a lab and negligence of this could lead to severe consequences, it could unexpectedly cost a life.

So what are the more frequently utilized methods of sterilization in the laboratory, and how do they work?

The Sterilization is conveyed out by the methods according to requirement. The methods are: 1. Moist Heat Sterilization 2. Dry Heat Sterilization 3. Gas Sterilization and Others.

  1. Moist Heat Sterilization: Moderate pressure is utilized in steam sterilization. Steam is utilized under pressure as a means of accomplishing an elevated temperature. It is dominant to confirm the accurate quality of steam is utilized in order to keep away the problems which follow, superheating of the steam, failure of steam penetration into porous loads, incorrect removal of air, etc.
  2. Dry Heat Sterilization: Dry heat sterilization is utilized for heat-stable non-aqueous preparations, powders and definite impregnated dressings. It may also be utilized for sterilization of some types of container. Sterilization by dry heat is generally carried out in a hot-air oven. Heat is carried from its source to load by radiation, convention and to a small extent by conduction.

This process can eliminate heat-resistant endotoxin. In each cycle it is predominant to make sure that the entire content of each container is maintained for a successful blend of time and temperature for most part to allow temperature variations in hot-air ovens, which may be considerable. Dry heat is utilized to sterilize glassware, porcelain and metal equipment, oils and fats and powders i.e. talc, etc.

  1. Gas Sterilization: Gaseous sterilizing agents are of two main types, oxidizing and alkylating agents. Vapour phase hydrogen peroxide is an example of the former. Ethylene oxide and formaldehyde are instance of the alkylating agents. However, the BP states that gaseous sterilization is used when there is no acceptable replacement. The main advantage of ethylene oxide is that many types of materials, including thermo labile materials, can be sterilized without damage.

Low temperature steam with formaldehyde has been utilized as an option for sterilizing thermo labile substances. Both ethylene oxide and formaldehyde have health risks and strict monitoring of personnel revealed to the gases required to make sure protection from harmful effects.

  1. Sterilization by Radiation: Radiations can be split up into two groups: electromagnetic waves and streams of particulate matter. The former group consists infrared radiation, ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma rays. The latter group includes alpha and beta radiations. More frequently infrared radiation, ultraviolet light, gamma radiation and high-velocity electrons are utilized for sterilization.

(i) Ultraviolet Light:

A narrow range of UV wavelength is successful in eliminating the microorganism. The wavelength is powerfully absorbed by the nucleoproteins. The most important disadvantage of UV radiation as a sterilizing agent is its poor penetrating power. This is the result of powerful absorption by many substances. The application of UV radiation is limited.

(ii) Ionizing Radiations:

Ionizing radiations are satisfactory for commercial sterilization pro­cesses. It must have good penetrating power, high sterilizing efficiency, little or no damage result on irradiated materials and are capable of being produced efficiently. The radiations that satisfy these four measures are best high-speed electrons from machines and gamma rays from radioactive isotopes.

  1. Sterilization by Filtration: Membrane filters are built from cellulose derives or other polymers. There are no loose fibres or molecules in membrane filters. They keep molecules bigger than the pore size on the filter surface hence filters particularly useful in noticing of small numbers of bacteria.

Passage through a filter of suitable pore size can remove bacteria and moulds. Viruses and mycoplasma may not be maintained. After filtration the liquid is aseptically dispensed into formerly sterilized containers which are later sealed.

Other than this, it is tough to make universal statements about the various methods of sterilization because there can be huge non-identical in these considerations depending on the size and location of the sterilizer, as well as the methods waged for product release. All of these circumstances will influence selection of the sterilization process and the coherence with which it controls.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for Sterilization Machines from our wide experience. For any query write us at info@kerone.com or visit www.kerone.com.

Sterilization Method in Chemical and Psychological

Sterilization indicates to any process that removes, kills, or deactivates all compositions of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spores, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc. Sterilization can be attainted through diverse means, including heat, chemicals, irradiation, high pressure, and filtration. Sterilization is distinct from disinfection, sanitization, and pasteurization, in that those methods reduce rather than destroying all forms of life and biological agents present. After sterilization, an object is resorted to as being sterile or aseptic.

Chemicals are also accustomed for sterilization. Heating provides an infallible way to exterminate objects of all transmissible agents, but it is not always suitable if it will vandalize heat-sensitive materials such as biological materials, fiber optics, electronics, and many plastics. In these circumstances chemicals, either in a gaseous or liquid form can be used as sterilants. While the use of gas and liquid chemical sterilants avoids the problem of heat vandalize, users must ensure that the article to be sterilized is chemically compatible with the sterilant being used and that the sterilant is able to reach all surfaces that must be sterilized. In addition, the use of chemical sterilants poses new provocations for workplace protection, as the properties that make chemicals successful sterilants normally make them injurious to humans. The method for separating sterilant residue from the sterilized materials varies depending on the chemical and process that is used. The chemical method of sterilization can be classified as liquid and gaseous sterilization.

Chemicals Used In Sterilization.

  • Ethylene oxide
  • Nitrogen dioxide
  • Ozone
  • Glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Peracetic acid

Gaseous Sterilization

  • Gaseous sterilization engages the process of exposing equipment or devices to non- identical gases in a closed heated or pressurized chamber.
  • Gaseous sterilization is a more successful technique as gases can pass between tiny orifices and give more successful outcome.
  • Besides, gases are often used along with heat treatment which also smoothens the functioning of the gases.
  • However, there is a matter of release of some toxic gases throughout the process which needs to be eliminated at regular intervals from the system.
  • The mechanism of action is non-identical for divergent types of gases.

Liquid Sterilization

  • Liquid sterilization is the process of sterilization which involves the submerging of equipment in the liquid sterilant to eliminate all feasible microorganisms and their spores.
  • Although liquid sterilization is not as effective as gaseous sterilization, it is appropriate in conditions where a low level of defilement is present.

Psychological Sterilization

It can be strenuous to measure the psychological outcomes of sterilization, as definite psychological phenomenon may be more common in those who finally decide to take part in sterilization. The relationships between psychological problems and sterilization may be due more to correlation preferably than causation. That being said, there are several trends surrounding the psychological health of those who have received sterilizations. A 1996 Chinese study found that “risk for depression was 2.34 times greater after tubal ligation, and 3.97 times greater after vasectomy. If an individual goes into the course of action after being coerced or with a lack of understanding of the plan of action and its consequences, he or she is more likely to suffer negative psychological consequences afterwards. However, most people in the United States who are sterilized keep the same level of psychological health as they did preceding to the course of action. Because sterilization is a largely irreversible procedure, post-sterilization regret is a major psychological effect.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for Sterilization Equipment’s from our wide experience. For any query write us at info@kerone.com or visit www.kerone.com.

Importance of Thermal Processing in Food Industry

Thermal processing is defined as the aggregate of temperature and time required to remove a specific number of microorganisms from a food product.

The three general equipment classifications for thermal processing equipment are:

  • Batch
  • Semi-continuous
  • Continuous

Classification used depends upon the scope of production and the nature of the business. While the science behind heat treatment remains mostly the same, definite advantages can be achieved from selective oven and furnace types. As an example it is possible to follow through the annealing process in air furnaces, vacuum furnaces, and gas purged retort furnaces, amongst others. Correspondingly the surface chemistry process of carburizing can be carried out in a range of equipment types including batch and continuous atmosphere controlled furnaces, pusher furnaces, or vacuum furnaces. The range of furnace types is exceedingly different.

The term “Thermal” refers to processes intricating heat. Heating is a successful way of conserving. The basic motive for the thermal processing of food is, to reduce or eliminate microbial activity, reduce or eliminate enzyme activity, and to bring out physical or chemical changes, to make the food meet an evident quality excellence.

There are three main temperature categories employed in thermal processing.

  • Blanching
  • Pasteurization
  • Sterilization

There are two more categories gentle Processes and More nasty Processes. Mild Processes contains Blanching and Pasteurization, and more nasty Processes accommodate canning, baking, roasting, frying and etc.

Blanching: The primary purpose of blanching is to demolish enzyme activity in fruit and vegetables. It is not planned as a sole method of conservation. But as a pre-treatment prior to freezing, drying and canning. Blanching is carried out at up to 100o using hot water. Blanching carries out steam.

Pasteurization: Pasteurization is an adequately gentle heat treatment.in which food is heated to less than 100o.It is extensively used all over the food industry. It can be used to demolish adequately heat sensitive. It can be used to demolish adequate heat sensitive micro-organism. It is used to increase shelf life.

The two group of micro-organism that get through pasteurization temperatures used in milk are THERMODURIC and THERMOPHILLIC. Thermoduric organisms can get through adequately high temperatures but it’s not mandatory that at these temperatures organism will grow e.g. streptococcus and Lactobacillus. Thermophillic organisms get through high temperatures but they require high temperature for their growth.

Sterilization: Sterilization is a controlled heating process used to completely remove all living micro-organisms, including thermo resistant spores in milk or other food. It can be accomplished by, moist heat, Dry heat, filtration, irradiation, or by chemical methods. Sterilization used to eliminate all the bacteria and all the bacterial spores.

The most important characteristics of the equipment in a continuous-flow thermal process are to make sure that the foodstuff acquires both a minimum enumerated process temperature and also maintains that temperature for a specified time.

The equipment itself must also be of a standard of construction that allows it to be presterilized, that is, heat treated to a time-temperature combination greater than the foodstuff is to receive just before operation with the foodstuff, to stop recontamination of the product in the course of cooling and storage before aseptic packaging. All continuous-flow thermal processes to make sure that the minimum holding time is accomplished by designing the holding tube to be of the correct length for the designed volume throughput of foodstuff and then controlling the flow rate through the process to ensure that at no time does it out strip the designed value.

The minimum temperature is make sure by a temperature sensor at the end of the holding tube, which can handle a flow diversion valve and alarm, recycling under processed product back to the feed tank.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for Thermal Processing Equipment from our wide experience. For any query write us at info@kerone.com or visit www.kerone.com

Electromagnetic Energy in Food Processing

The use of electromagnetic energy in food processing is considered with respect to food safety, nutritional quality, and organoleptic quality. The results of nonionizing radiation sources such as microwave and radio-frequency energy and ionizing radiate on sources.

Nonionizing microwave energy sources are more and more used in home and industrial food processing and are well-accepted by the end users. But, even though new-fangled Food and Drug Administration approval of low and intermediate ionizing radiation dose levels for grains and further plants products.

Microwave and radio frequency energy are allotments of the electromagnetic spectrum that can redeem heat to foods selectively and systematically. Explicitly, microwaves interrelate with water in foods to heat preponderant those allotments that are wet.

End users are usual with microwave ovens as household appliances used to warm and cook foods, defrost frozen foods, and pop popcorn. On an industrial scale, microwaves have been used to temper frozen ingredients and have been considered for drying applications, without great success.

The use of electromagnetic energy, especially microwave and radio frequency energy, for industrial processing of food is given renewed attention. Electromagnetic energy exhibits unique properties, like fast and differential heating, which can be of advantage, e.g. for improverneut of process efficiency and product quality.

Application of Electromagnetic Energy :

  • Microwave Ovens
  • Radio Frequency
  • Sterilization

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for Electromagnetic Energy equipment from our wide experience. For any query write us at info@kerone.com or visit www.kerone.com.

How do you make Dairy products fit for consumption?

Dairy products are basically products made from containing milk of mammals, which include food products like yoghurt, cheeses and butter among others. These products have been a part of staple food in many countries and used in traditional cuisines as well. Rates of dairy consumption vary widely worldwide. The consumption can be as high as 150kg per capita and also under 30 kg per capita in some countries.

Milk is a valuable nutritious food that has a short shelf-life and requires careful handling. Milk is highly perishable because it is an excellent medium for the growth of microorganisms – particularly bacterial pathogens – that can cause spoilage and diseases if consumed without precautions. Hence, milk processing, this allows the preservation of milk for days, weeks or months and helps to reduce food-borne illness. The usable life of milk can be extended for several days through techniques such as –

  • Clarification – particles with dense solids are separated from continuous milk phase.
  • Skimming – separation of cream from skim milk.
  • Whey Separation – separation of fat.
  • Centrifugation – process similar to clarification but more precise on particle sedimentation.
  • Pasteurization – heat treatment process to reduce the number of possible pathogenic microorganisms.
  • Fermentation – cooling to a specific temperature to influence the quality of raw milk.
  • Concentration – process of preparing products like butter, cheese and ghee with long shelf lives.
  • Preservation – process of instigating the natural inhibitors in milk (e.g., lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase) prevent significant rises in bacterial numbers for a limited period.

India in Dairy Processing:

  • Output of around 163.7 million MT, India is the largest producer of milk globally
  • India’s milk production is expected to reach 180 million MT by 2020
  • Indian dairy market is amongst the largest and fastest growing markets in the world
  • India has attained the top position in milk production globally, owing to a huge bovine population. However, the full potential of Indian milch herd still remains unattained
  • Per capita availability of milk in India has reached 352 grams per day
  • #1 in the world for production of milk
  • India’s dairy products exports is around USD 0.3 Bn in 2016-17
  • Major destinations for India’s dairy exports are UAE, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Nepal

Processing systems by KERONE
KERONE designs, manufactures and installs machinery batch as well as continuous, power sourced by microwave, infrared, radio frequency and convection radiation for all types of processes including dairy food sterilization. Whether you’re making milk for ambient or chilled distribution, fermented products or dairy powders, we thoroughly understand the complexities of dealing with this sensitive product. Reducing environmental impacts is also an important aspect for the dairy industry, and hence all our equipment and solution development is focused on minimizing utilities consumption and reducing the product losses and wastages generated by the process.

Why choose us?
Since the last 42 years, accuracy, efficiency, machine quality and output quality are not just words but KERONE’s lifetime commitment towards our profession since its inception, creating a base of more than 1000 loyal customers. Our systems are used to meet the varying demands of numerous industrial applications – all with a level of precision that manufacturers seek. Fulfilling demands as per client’s specification has been our USP and we strive to carry the same forward. We also provide detailed assistance for installation without much hassle of complex functioning of the machinery. We always strive to achieve more than client satisfaction with our timely delivery, quality and efficiency towards every oven manufactured by us.