Types and Methods of Wood Drying

Wood drying (also seasoning lumber or wood seasoning) reduces the moisture content of wood before its use. When the drying is done in a kiln, the product is known as kiln-dried timber or lumber, whereas air drying is the more traditional method.

There are two main reasons for drying wood:


When wood is used as a construction material, whether as a structural support in a building or in woodworking objects, it will absorb or expel moisture until it is in equilibrium with its surroundings. Equilibration (usually drying) causes unequal shrinkage in the wood, and can cause damage to the wood if equilibration occurs too rapidly. The equilibration must be controlled to prevent damage to the wood.

Wood burning:

When wood is burned (firewood), it is usually best to dry it first. Damage from shrinkage is not a problem here, as it may be in the case of drying for woodworking purposes. Moisture affects the burning process, with unburnt hydrocarbons going up the chimney. If a 50% wet log is burnt at high temperature, with good heat extraction from the exhaust gas leading to a 100 °C exhaust temperature, about 5% of the energy of the log is wasted through evaporating and heating the water vapour. With condensers, the efficiency can be further increased; but, for the normal stove, the key to burning wet wood is to burn it very hot, perhaps starting fire with dry wood.

Types of Wood:

Wood is divided, according to its botanical origin, into two kinds: softwoods, from coniferous trees, and hardwoods, from broad-leaved trees. Softwoods are lighter and generally simple in structure, whereas hardwoods are harder and more complex. However, in Australia, softwood generally describes rain forest trees, and hardwood describes Sclerophyll species (Eucalyptus spp).

Wood – Water Relationship:

The timber of living trees and fresh logs contains a large amount of water which often constitutes over 50% of the wood’s weight. Water has a significant influence on wood. Wood continually exchanges moisture or water with its surroundings, although the rate of exchange is strongly affected by the degree to which wood is sealed.

Wood contains water in three forms:

Free water

The bulk of water contained in the cell Lumina is only held by capillary forces. It is not bound chemically and is called free water. Free water is not in the same thermodynamic state as liquid water: energy is required to overcome the capillary forces. Furthermore, free water may contain chemicals, altering the drying characteristics of wood.

Bound or hygroscopic water

Bound water is bound to the wood via hydrogen bonds. The attraction of wood for water arises from the presence of free hydroxyl (OH) groups in the cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin molecules in the cell wall. The hydroxyl groups are negatively charged. Because water is a polar liquid, the free hydroxyl groups in cellulose attract and hold water by hydrogen bonding.


Water in cell Lumina in the form of water vapour is normally negligible at normal temperature and humidity.

Drying defects

Drying defects are the most common form of degrade in timber, next to natural problems such as knots. There are two types of drying defects, although some defects involve both causes:

Defects from shrinkage anisotropy, resulting in warping: cupping, bowing, twisting, crooking, spring and diamonding.

Defects from uneven drying, resulting in the rupture of the wood tissue, such as checks (surface, end and internal), end splits, honey-combing and case hardening. Collapse, often shown as corrugation, or so-called wash boarding of the wood surface, may also occur (Innes, 1996). Collapse is a defect that results from the physical flattening of fibres to above the fibre saturation point and is thus not a form of shrinkage anisotropy.

The five measures of drying quality include:

  • Moisture content gradient and presence of residual drying stress (case-hardening);
  • Surface, internal and end checks;
  • Collapse;
  • Distortions;
  • Discolouration caused by drying.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for drying of woods in various products range from our wide experience. For any query write us at info@kerone.com or visit www.kerone.com

Significance of Heat Exchanger

A heat exchanger is a system used to transfer heat between two or more fluids. Heat exchangers are used in both cooling and heating processes. The fluids may be separated by a solid wall to prevent mixing or they may be in direct contact. They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power stations, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, natural-gas processing, and sewage treatment. The classic example of a heat exchanger is found in an internal combustion engine in which a circulating fluid known as engine coolant flows through radiator coils and air flows past the coils, which cools the coolant and heats the incoming air. Another example is the heat sink, which is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant.

There are three primary classifications of heat exchangers according to their flow arrangement. In parallel-flow heat exchangers, the two fluids enter the exchanger at the same end, and travel in parallel to one another to the other side. In counter-flow heat exchangers the fluids enter the exchanger from opposite ends. The counter current design is the most efficient, in that it can transfer the most heat from the heat (transfer) medium per unit mass due to the fact that the average temperature difference along any unit length is higher.

  1. Double-pipe heat exchanger (a) when the other fluid flows into the annular gap between two tubes, one fluid flows through the smaller pipe. The flow may be a current flow or parallel flow in a double pipe heat exchanger. (b) Parallel flow, where at the same point, the hot and cold liquids join, flow in the same direction and exit at the same end.(c) Counter flow, where at opposite ends, hot and cold fluids join, flow in the opposite direction and exit at opposite ends.
  2. Shell-and-tube heat exchanger. The main constituents of this type of heat exchanger seem to be the tube box, shell, the front rear end headers, and baffles or fins.
  3. Plate Heat Exchanger A plate heat exchanger contains an amount of thin shaped heat transfer plates bundled together. The gasket arrangement of each pair of plates provides two separate channel system. Each pair of plates form a channel where the fluid can flow through. The pairs are attached by welding and bolting methods. The following shows the components in the heat exchanger.
  4. Condensers and Boilers Heat exchangers using a two-phase heat transfer system are condensers, boilers and evaporators. Condensers are instruments that take and cool hot gas or vapor to the point of condensation and transform the gas into a liquid form. The point at which liquid transforms to gas is called vaporization and vice versa is called condensation. Surface condenser is the most common type of condenser where it includes a water supply device. Figure 5 below displays a two-pass surface condenser.

To select an appropriate heat exchanger, the system designers (or equipment vendors) would firstly consider the design limitations for each heat exchanger type. Though cost is often the primary criterion, several other selection criteria are important:

  • High/low pressure limits
  • Thermal performance
  • Temperature ranges
  • Product mix (liquid/liquid, particulates or high-solids liquid)
  • Fluid flow capacity
  • Cleanability, maintenance and repair
  • Materials required for construction
  • Ability and ease of future expansion
  • Material selection, such as copper, aluminium, carbon steel, stainless steel, nickel alloys, ceramic, polymer, and titanium.

Heat exchangers are widely used in industry both for cooling and heating large scale industrial processes. The type and size of heat exchanger used can be tailored to suit a process depending on the type of fluid, its phase, temperature, density, viscosity, pressures, chemical composition and various other thermodynamic properties.

In many industrial processes there is waste of energy or a heat stream that is being exhausted, heat exchangers can be used to recover this heat and put it to use by heating a different stream in the process. This practice saves a lot of money in industry, as the heat supplied to other streams from the heat exchangers would otherwise come from an external source that is more expensive and more harmful to the environment.

Heat exchangers are used in many industries, including:

  • Waste water treatment
  • Refrigeration
  • Wine and beer making
  • Petroleum refining
  • Nuclear power

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for Heat Exchanger in various products range from our wide experience. For any query write us at info@kerone.com or visit www.kerone.com

The Importance of Drying Plastics

Dehumidifying or drying plastics in the process phase may be a important part of injection molding. Drying plastic resin utilized to reduce or eliminate complications that will be caused by an excessive amount of moisture in an exceedingly plastic material. The extent to that moisture affects the quality of a molded part is set by {the specific the precise the particular plastic resin being processed and therefore the supposed purpose of the part. this article can discuss 2 categories of resins as well as the benefits of drying plastic material.

Hygroscopic vs. Non-Hygroscopic

Each kind of resin contains a set of process characteristics that have a definite affinity to assemble moisture. These 2 groups of polymers discuss the distinction between hygroscopic and non-hygroscopic polymers.

Hygroscopic Polymers

These polymers include Nylon, ABS, Acrylic, PET, PBT, polyurethane, Polycarbonate, and many more. These resins absorb moisture internally and unleash moisture through the air. Any resin moving from storage to the molding machine usually needs drying because of hygroscopic properties. once the wet hygroscopic pellet is surrounded by a dry and hot setting for a sufficient amount of your time, the pressure outside the pellet is under the pressure inside the pellet. The moisture inside the pellet begins to migrate toward the area of low pressure outside the pellet. Eventually, the pellet becomes dry. Below are some characteristics of hygroscopic polymers.

  • They have a strong affinity to attract moisture.
  • Internal moisture cannot be removed with hot air alone.
  • Will absorb moisture into their molecular structure if exposed to ambient air. Must process quickly after drying.

Non-Hygroscopic Polymers

These polymers include PVC, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyethylene, and many more. These resins don’t absorb moisture internally into the pellet. However, moisture may be collected on the surface of the pellet. Applying heat becomes a very important a part of removing surface moisture once this happens. Below are characteristics of non-hygroscopic polymers.

  • Any moisture collected is on the surface of the pellet (adsorption).
  • Typical moisture collection is due to condensation.
  • Moisture is easily removed by passing a sufficient stream of warm air over the material.

Advantages of Drying Plastics

The moisture contained among the plastic may seem sort of a tiny aspect of processing, but if not controlled it will make it nearly impossible to provide quality plastic components. resin drying before process maintains the performance characteristics of your resin and ultimately your competitive position. Some advantages of drying plastics include:

  • Preventing Cosmetic Problems: Known as splay or silver streaking.
  • Preventing Hydrolysis: A chemical reaction that breaks the covalent binds in the polymer chain, reducing molecular weight of the polymer and significantly reducing mechanical properties.
  • Preventing Part Failure: When drying, if the maximum level of moisture appropriate for processing is not reached, premature part failure and structural defects can occur.

Again, we tend to dry hygroscopic resins to get the moisture out. a lot of importantly, it’s to ensure maximum polymer performance. we tend to produce parts for medical and different high-liability applications. We tend to perceive that if a wet resin is processed, we are going to be leaving a “fingerprint” on the part. If the part fails, tests may be done to examine if the polymer chains are the proper length.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for drying technologies for Plastic in various products range from our wide experience. For any query write us at info@kerone.com or visit www.kerone.com.

Drying Process in Ceramic Industries

Generally the term ‘ceramics’ (ceramic products) is utilized for inorganic materials with presumably some organic content, created from non-metallic compounds and made permanent by a firing method. In addition to clay primarily based materials, these days’ ceramics embrace a large number of products with a little fraction of clay or none at all. Ceramics may be glazed or unglazed, porous or glassy. Firing of ceramic bodies induces time-temperature transformation of the constituent minerals, typically into a combination of recent minerals and glassy phases. Characteristic properties of ceramic merchandise embrace high strength, wear resistance, long service life, chemical inertness and non-toxicity, resistance to heat and fire, (usually) electric resistance and generally also a particular porosity.

Two kinds of energy are utilized in the ceramic industry; electrical energy and chemical energy. The electrical energy is employed in 2 completely different ways; energy once utilized in the motor and fan of the machine, and thermal energy once utilized to heat the kilns and furnaces. The chemical energy of fossil fuel is all converted into thermal energy through combustion reaction. Energy utilized in the ceramic trade is predominantly occupied by fossil fuel energy. The drying method within the ceramic trade is that the greatest energy consumer second to the firing method. Drying suggests that loss of moisture from the surface of the substance by evaporation, and therefore the drying speed depends on the temperature and humidity.

Ceramic Manufacturing Process:
• Raw Materials Procurement & Weighing
The raw materials utilized in the manufacture of ceramics vary from relatively impure clay materials well-mined from natural deposits to ultrahigh purity powders ready by chemical synthesis. Naturally occurring raw materials utilized to manufacture ceramics embrace silica, sand, quartz, flint, silicates, and alumino silicates. the primary step within the method is to weigh the raw materials needed to manufacture a ceramic tile all sorts of every type of frit, feldspar and numerous clays. All the raw materials are accurately weighed, in order that the standard of the product may be stabilized.
Fine Grinding & Milling
The basic beneficiation processes contains crushing, grinding, and sizing or classification. Primary crushing is employed to reduce the dimensions of coarse materials, like clays, down to some one to five centimeters. The foremost common sorts of crushers used are jaw crushers, cone crushers, gyratory crushers, and roll crushers. Secondary crushing or grinding reduces particle size right down to someone millimeter in diameter. Fine grinding or milling reduces the particle size right down to as low as one.0 micrometer in diameter. Ball mills are the foremost usually used piece of equipment for milling. 
Filter Press
During the method to form clay and ceramic slurries used for the manufacture of dinnerware, insulators, china etc., the clay slurry goes through a dewatering step before any process and molding into the required. These slurries are very dense and heavy and usually need dewatering at 225 PSI feed pressure to get a solid cake.
Mixing ensures a standardized distribution of clay within the solution. It conjointly prevents the sedimentation of clay that is fascinating for the method of ceramic formation. pug Mills are most typically used for combination in ceramic production.
• Spray Drying
Ceramic tiles are usually shaped by dry pressing. Before pressing, several facilities granulate the ceramic mix to create a free-flowing powder, thereby improving handling and compaction. The foremost ordinarily used methodology of granulation is spray-drying. The slurry is injected into a drying chamber with hot gases. Because the hot gases are available in contact with the slurry, a powder is made and picked up during a cyclone or fabric filter. Spray dryers typically are gas fired and operate at temperatures of 70° to 570°C. When spray drying, the water content of the granules is between 35-40%.
• Powder Storage
The granules need to be kept in a storage bin for a couple of days so its composition becomes even a lot of homogeneous. This method makes the granules a lot of pliable and less doubtless to stay to the mould. The size of powder storage bin required is going to be determined by the production capability of the plant. Generally, the foremost appropriate size is capable of holding tons of plenty of powder.
• Shaping
In the forming step, the ceramic mix is consolidated and shaped to provide a cohesive body of the required form and size. Forming strategies may be classified as either dry forming, plastic molding, or wet forming. Once the composition of the powder becomes homogenized, it’s taken to the press wherever it’s shaped and squeezed below high pressure to create a biscuit or Greenware tile body.
• Glazing
Glazes resemble glass structure and texture. The aim of glazing is to supply a smooth, shiny surface that seals the ceramic body. Not all ceramics are glazed. Those who are glazed are often glazed before firing, or may be glazed when firing, followed by re firing to line the glaze.

• Speed Body Drying
The drying method within the ceramic industry is that the greatest energy consumer second to the firing method. Drying suggests that loss of moisture from the surface of the substance by evaporation, and therefore the drying speed depends on the temperature and humidity. Once the substance is dried and moisture is lost, particles are placed near, resulting in shrinkage.
• Firing
Firing is that the method by which ceramics are thermally consolidated into a dense, cohesive body composed of fine, uniform grains. This method is also remarked as sintering or densification. Ceramics usually are fired at 50-75% of absolutely the melting temperature of the material. Ceramic product are manufactured by pressure firing, that is comparable to the forming method of dry pressing except that the pressing is conducted at the firing temperature.
• Packing
The finished products are then packed and stored or shipped.

Two types of drying process done in the manufacturing of ceramic tiles:

  1. Drying through spray dryer
  2. Drying through vertical dryer
    To improve the utilization of the energy consuming in drying method. Here in ceramic tiles producing method the drying method is second most energy consuming method after the firing method. For currently regarding the energy consumption we’ve to analysis the method. Thus we have a tendency to visit the one company and analysis the producing method and from the analysis we have a tendency to do the mass balance and energy balance of drying method for the know about the energy consumption.
    We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for drying of ceramic in various products range from our wide experience. For any query write us at info@kerone.com or visit www.kerone.com

Artificial Intelligence in Chemical Industry

Chemicals are an important participant in our society. From automobiles and medicines to toys and clothes, they can be established in a numerous diversifications of everyday products. But the manufacturing of these substances can have unfavourable results on the environment, as well as the discharge of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.

Thankfully, even so, the chemical manufacturing industry has a new tool that could help lessen its environmental footprint: Artificial intelligence.

Just like other technologies, AI (Artificial Intelligence) comes with challenges, such as accountability, security, technological mistrust, and the displacement of human workers. These are only challenges that must be referred to support AI technology’s future. The collaborators must confirm that AI’s impact is a positive one by motivationally handling the challenges, while confirming the opportunities stays vacant.

Chemistry is a fertile ground for applying and developing AI technology. Areas of applications of AI and good systems are classified below.

  • Process control: several industries
  • Chemical synthesis and analysis
  • Manufacturing: planning and configuration
  • Waste minimization
  • Signal processing: several industries
  • Mineral exploration
  • Intelligent CAD
  • Instrumentation: monitoring and data analysis
  • Medical diagnosis and treatment
  • Chemo metrics

In Chemical industry a large amount Artificial Intelligence (A.I) is used in Pharmaceutical industry. In pharmaceutical industry A.I is utilized in numerous tasks like in Drug Discovery. Drug discovery frequently takes eternity to test compounds against samples of diseased cells. Discovering compounds that are biologically active and are worth investigating and need even more advance analysis. As computers are faster and accurate compared to traditional human examination and laboratory experiments in divulging new data sets, new and effective drugs can be made available sooner, while also lessens the operational costs integrated with the manual investigation of each compound.

Other than drug discovery Automated control process system [ACPS] are classified below.

  • Sensing process variables‟ value.
  • Transmission of signal to measuring element.
  • Measure process variable.
  • Presenting the value of the measured variable.
  • Set the value of the desired variable.
  • Comparison of desired and measured values.
  • Control signal transmission to final control element. and
  • Control of manipulated value.

Two applications of A.I in Pharmaceutical Industry are.

  • Formulation. (Eg; Controlled Release of tablets and Immediate Release of tablets)
  • In Product Development. (Eg; Optimization of Formulation)

Hence, Pharmaceutical Industry can urge the innovation by using technological advancements. The recent technological progress that comes to mind would be artificial intelligence, development of computer systems able to perform tasks normally requiring human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages. Artificial intelligence can be of real help in analysing the data and presenting results that would help out in decision making, saving Human effort, time, and money and thus help save Lives.

The bigger the healthcare sector gets more refined and more technologically advanced infrastructure it will need. Artificial intelligence is the design and application of algorithms for examination of swotting and clarification of data.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for Artificial Intelligence in various products range from our wide experience. For any query write us at info@kerone.com or visit www.kerone.com.

Heat Resistance in Coating Industry

A coating could be a covering which is applied to the surface of an object, typically stated to as the substrate. The goal of applying the coating is also decorative, functional, or both. The coating itself could also be an all-over coating, fully covering the substrate, or it’s going to only cover components of the substrate. an example of all of those styles of coating may be a product label on several drinks bottles — one aspect has associate all-over purposeful coating (the adhesive) and therefore the alternative aspect has one or a lot of decorative coatings in an appropriate pattern (the printing) to create the words and pictures.

Many industrial coating processes involve the application of a thin film of purposeful material to a substrate, like paper, fabric, film, foil, or sheet stock. If the substrate starts and ends the method wound up during a roll, the method might is termed “roll-to-roll” or “web-based” coating? A roll of substrate, once wound through the coating machine, is generally known as a web. A coating is also applied as liquids, gases or solids.

Numerous methods exist for evaluating coatings, including both destructive and non-destructive methods. The foremost common destructive method is microscopy of a mounted cross-section of the coating and substrate. The foremost common non-destructive techniques include ultrasonic thickness measurement, XRF coatings thickness measurement, and ultra-micro hardness testing.

High temperature-resistant coatings are utilized in a range of industries and markets to stop corrosion of steel subjected to extreme temperatures while in service. There are several testing protocols that are used to evaluate the performance of those coatings; however, performance comparisons are challenging since there’s little uniformity or consistency of the test methods. this article lists the industries and markets that employ heat-resistant coatings, describes the generic kinds of products available, alongside the various testing protocols, and presents the implications of non-uniform comparisons of performance prior to installation.

High-temperature coatings are frequently utilized in the aerospace, manufacturing, military, petrochemical and power industries for piping, fireproofing, jet engines, offshore rigs, original equipment and various sorts of plants/facilities that employ high-temperature processes.

One of the most important users of industrial high-temperature coatings is processing facilities like power plants, petrochemical plants, and refineries. These facilities often have an in depth network of piping, vessels, and tanks that require protection from corrosion. Since extreme temperature steel is usually insulated, corrosion under insulation (or CUI) is usually a priority, as active corrosion can’t be seen with the unaided eye unless the insulation is first removed.

High Temperature Coating Types and Characteristics are:

Composed of either organic or inorganic materials, high-temperature coating types are commonly epoxy, epoxy phenolic, epoxy novolac, silicone, or a more specialized multi-polymeric matrix.

Epoxy coatings are commonly utilized in oilfield, off-shore, and petrochemical facility applications and are favoured for their impact and abrasion resistance. Epoxy coatings are organic polymers created through chemical reactions between epoxy resins and co-reactants/hardeners/curatives. Epoxies also are thermosets, which suggests that when cured they can’t be melted and reformed sort of a vinyl or plastic can. Excessive heat will deteriorate chemical bonds within a thermoset and cause it to degrade, discolour, lose ductility, and/or become brittle. Epoxy resins also are liable to radiation and can chalk when exposed to sun light.

Epoxy phenolic coatings are categorized as either ambient cure, during which the phenolic and epoxy resins chemically react at temperature, or heat cure, where the coating is exposed to temperatures of 350-400°F to accelerate the cure or activate a catalyst or curing agent within the coating. Epoxy phenolic provide chemical, solvent and temperature resistance, and are commonly used for immersion service, tank linings and high-temperature oil and brine immersion service. Other suitable applications are when severe chemical resistance is important , but a high degree of flexibility isn’t .Advantages of epoxy phenolic include excellent adhesion properties, temperature resistance up to 400°F and resistance to solvents, chemicals, and abrasion. Limitations include decreased weather ability and flexibility, relatively slow air curing time and often the necessity of heat curing at relatively high-temperatures.

Epoxy novolac coatings exhibit improved heat resistance due to the presence of aromaticity in their molecular structure, including more cross-linking compared to other epoxies. Novolac epoxies are typically heat resistant up to 350 -360°F. Generally, novolac epoxies are known for having greater resistance to oxidizing and nonoxidizing acids, and aliphatic and aromatic solvents compared to other epoxies. These qualities make novolac epoxies an option for applications like tank linings involved with high-temperature acidic crude oil.

Silicone coatings contain resins that are either pure or hybrid polymers and contains organic pendant groups attached to an inorganic backbone of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms. The polymer structure provides thermal stability and oxidation resistance. Silicones are essentially transparent to ultraviolet from sunlight. High-temperature, 100% silicone coatings are single component and cure by heat-induced polymerization. This thin film paints dry by solvent evaporation to realize sufficient mechanical strength for handling and transport. However, total cure is achieved only after exposure to temperatures within the 350-400o F range. Curing are often achieved because the equipment is returned to its operating temperature. Pure silicone coatings are used on exhaust stacks, boilers and other exterior steel surfaces at temperatures starting from 400-1200o F.

Modified silicone coatings have lower resistance to elevated temperatures than 100% silicone coatings. Silicone acrylics are single package air-dry paints that have color and gloss retention to temperatures within the 350-400o F range. Similarly, silicone alkyds are single package air dry paints with similar color and gloss retention properties. However, the dry heat resistance of silicone alkyds is restricted to about 225o F. Although most high-temperature silicones require ambient temperatures for application, special formulations are available which will be applied to steel up to 400o F.

Multi-polymeric matrix coatings are either single or multi-component inert, inorganic, and composed of resin mixtures. Often, multi-polymeric coatings contain aluminium and micaceous iron oxide flake, or titanium. Results from manufacturer studies have disclosed anti-corrosive performance with single coat applications (150-200 microns [6-8 mils]) between ambient and 400°C (752°F) in each atmospheric exposure and underneath insulation tests.

Applications of Heat Resistant Coating are:

  • Automotive & Transportation
  • Industrial
  • Consumer Good
  • Building & Construction

There are various tests however comparatively few normal protocols that are designed for high-temperature coatings to evaluate their performance for a given service surroundings. The protecting coatings industry would have the benefit of the development of standardized; broadly speaking accepted assessment techniques for high-temperature coatings for corrosion prevention.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for Heat Resistance in various products range from our wide experience. For any query write us at info@kerone.com or visit www.kerone.com.

Heat Pump Drying of Fruits and Vegetables

Heat pump technology has been utilized for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning in domestic and industrial sectors in most developed countries of the world. Several potential users view heat pump drying technology as fragile, slow, and high capital intensive when differentiated with conventional dryer. This paper tried to divulge the principles and potentials of heat pump drying technology and the conditions for its optimum use. Also, numerous methods of quantifying performances during heat pump drying as well as the quality of the dried products are highlighted. Obligatory factors for maximizing the capacity and efficiency of a heat pump dryer were recognized. Finally, the erroneous view that heat pump drying is not feasible economically was clarified.

Consumers, in a bid to have healthier and additional natural foodstuffs, have been motivated to extend their daily intake of fruits and vegetables because their nutritional values as suppliers of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and low fat are well recognized. However, the water content of most fruits and vegetables is higher than 80%, which limits their shelf-life and makes them more susceptible to storage and transport problems. Vegetables and fruits can be made more acceptable to consumers by drying. In addition, there is market for dehydrated fruits and vegetables which increases the importance of drying for most of the countries worldwide. Although drying is an energy intensive operation, it is highly very indispensable.

Drying is required to increase the shelf-life of foods without the requirement for refrigerated storage; to reduce weight and bulk volumes, for saving in the cost of transportation and storage; to change perishable products (surplus) to stable forms (e.g., milk powder); to manufacture ingredients and additives for industrial transformation (so-called intermediate food products (IFPs), like vegetables for soups, onions for cooked meats, fruits for cakes, binding agents, aroma, food coloring agents, gel-forming and emulsifying proteins, etc.); and to acquire specific convenience foods (potato flakes, instant drinks, breakfast cereals, dried fruits for use as snacks, etc.), with quick reconstitution characteristics and good sensorial qualities, for special use, like in vending machines, or directly for consumers. Also, the loss of product moisture content during drying results in an increasing concentration of nutrients in the remaining mass making proteins, fats, and carbohydrates present in larger amounts per unit weight in the dried food than in the fresh.

In the procedure of drying, heat is needed to evaporate moisture from the product and a flow of air to carry away the evaporated moisture, creating drying a high energy consuming operation. There are various heat sources available for drying and these have been well discussed in many articles. However, due to the extending prices of fossils and electricity and the emission of CO2 in conventional drying technique, green energy saving and other heat recovery techniques for processing and drying of produce become very important. Heat pump technology has been successfully utilized for drying agricultural products as well as for other domestic dehumidification/heating applications. It has been utilized for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning in domestic and industrial sectors in most developed countries of the world. However, heat pump drying (HPD) of fruits and vegetables has been mostly unexploited.

Heat pump drying has the capacity to recover the latent and sensible heat by condensing moisture from the drying air which may other drying methods cannot do. The recovered heat is recycled back to the dryer through heating of the dehumidified drying air; hence the energy effectiveness is increased substantially as a result of heat recovery which otherwise is lost in the atmosphere in conventional dryers. This enables drying at lower temperatures, lower cost, and operation even under humid ambient conditions.

At the final stage of drying, there will be little difference of the moisture ratios at the inlet and outlet of the drying chamber. The corresponding temperature divergence will also be minimal and these will result in ineffective drying and low thermal productivity. However, with heat pump drying, there is control of the moisture and temperature of the air as well as heat recovery. In this way, heat pump dryer can enhance the product quality while utilizing less energy.

There are many achievable ways of applying heat pump drying. These possibilities contain varying the following: mode of operation, HPD cycle, drying media, supplementary heating, and heat pump dryer operation, number of heat pump stages, and temperature for drying. One improvement that heat pump has over other heat sources for drying is that it can be applied to any kind of dryers. Any dryer that utilizes convection as the primary mode of heat input can be fitted with an appropriately designed heat pump, but dryers that need huge amounts of drying air, for example, flash or spray dryers, are not suited for HP operation. Heat pump drying technology has been mixed with other drying techniques to overcome some problems encountered in those techniques and to obtain enhanced product quality, lessen energy consumption, high coefficient of performance, and high thermal productivity.

Examples of heat pump assisted drying contain heat pump assisted solar drying, microwave drying, infrared drying, fluidized bed drying, atmospheric freeze drying, radiofrequency drying, and chemical heat pump assisted drying. This is in specific with heat sensitive materials like fruits and vegetables that require only low temperature. For example, combining HPD with solar drying enhances the drying and reduces cost. A heat pump is attractive because it can deliver more energy as heat than the electrical energy it consumes. Also it can utilize modified atmospheres to dry sensitive materials like fruits and vegetables. Moreover, the number of stages of heat pump in the dryer and other arrangements can be differ to enhance the performance of the dryer. In addition, chemical heat pump dyer has the advantage of being designed for continuous operation which allows for stable optimum operating conditions.

The quality elements of heat pump dried products are classified below.

  • Quality
  • Microbial Safety
  • Color
  • Ascorbic Acid Content (AA), Volatile Compound, and Active Ingredients Retention
  • Aroma and Flavor Loss
  • Viability
  • Rehydration
  • Shrinkage

Factors affecting the drying rate will differ somewhat depending upon the type of drying system utilized.

  • Nature of the material: physical and chemical composition, moisture content, and so forth;
  • Size, shape, and arrangement of the pieces to be dried;
  • Wet-bulb depression or relative humidity or partial pressure of water vapor in the air
  • Air temperature;
  • Air velocity

In general, the drying rate lessens with moisture content, extends with escalation in air temperature or lessens with escalation in air humidity. At very low air flows, extending the velocity causes faster drying, but at greater velocities the effect is minute indicating that moisture diffusion within the grain is the controlling mechanism.

Heat pump dryers are promising technologies that keep product quality and lessen energy consumption of drying, particularly for high value products like fruits and vegetables. The application of heat pump drying contributes positively to the following fruit and vegetables quality elements including enhanced microbial safety, better color, vitamin C retention, enhanced volatile compound, aroma and flavor compounds, rehydration, and texture. Finally, some aspects that can make heat pump drying cost successful and energy systematic were explained. Adoption of heat pump drying technology for drying of fruits and vegetables will enhance product quality and lessen energy absorbed in the process.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for Heat Pump Dryer from our wide experience. For any query write us at info@kerone.com or visit www.kerone.com.

Heating Process in Oil Industry

Heating oil or fuel may be a liquid product derived from fossil fuel distillation as a by-product of rock oil. It’s the same as diesel, however there’s variation in chemical composition, though properties are the same. Fossil fuel is that the second most significant by-product of rock oil once gas, that is additionally heavily used worldwide.

Process heating may be a key element of fossil fuel production. From process materials to pumping and transporting oil, several works processes place confidence in thermal fluid heaters and heating systems. As a result, prime quality, sturdy industrial heating systems for refineries are in high demand.

Industrial process heating operations are in charge for more than any other of the manufacturing sector’s energy’s request, accounting for approximately 70% of manufacturing sector process energy end. There is a various range of process heating unit operations, and associated equipment, that is to conquer important materials transformations such as heating, drying, curing, phase change, etc. that are fundamental operations in the production of most consumer and industrial products including those made out of metal, plastic, rubber, concrete, glass, and ceramics. Energy is supplied from a diverse range of sources, and includes a combination of electricity, steam, and fuels such as natural gas, coal, biomass and fuel oils.

Crude oil manufacturing and processing facilities are dependent on a range of indirect steam generators for maximum cost-effectiveness. Other important processes and services contains the proper removal of acid gases utilize amine & glycol reboilers and the liquid-gas vaporization that is critical following natural gas transport and storage. Finally, the indirect heating of crude oil as a means of viscosity reduction is the good way to ensure forcely controlled temperatures and maximized quality and efficiency.

Heating oil and diesel fuel are most of same petroleum products called distillates. Heating oil is sold mainly for use in boilers and furnaces and in water heaters.

Heating oil is commonly shipped by tank truck to residential, commercial and municipal buildings and stored in above-ground storage tanks located in the basements, garages, or outside adjacent to the building. It is sometimes stored in underground storage tanks but less often than ASTs. ASTs are used for smaller installations due to the lower cost factor. Heating oil is less commonly used as an industrial fuel or for power generation.

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Different Types of Sterilization Process

Sterilization can be accomplished by an amalgamation of heat, chemicals, irradiation, high pressure and filtration such as steam under pressure, dry heat, ultraviolet radiation, gas vapour sterilants, chlorine dioxide gas etc. Successful sterilization strategies are necessary for working in a lab and negligence of this could lead to severe consequences, it could unexpectedly cost a life.

So what are the more frequently utilized methods of sterilization in the laboratory, and how do they work?

The Sterilization is conveyed out by the methods according to requirement. The methods are: 1. Moist Heat Sterilization 2. Dry Heat Sterilization 3. Gas Sterilization and Others.

  1. Moist Heat Sterilization: Moderate pressure is utilized in steam sterilization. Steam is utilized under pressure as a means of accomplishing an elevated temperature. It is dominant to confirm the accurate quality of steam is utilized in order to keep away the problems which follow, superheating of the steam, failure of steam penetration into porous loads, incorrect removal of air, etc.
  2. Dry Heat Sterilization: Dry heat sterilization is utilized for heat-stable non-aqueous preparations, powders and definite impregnated dressings. It may also be utilized for sterilization of some types of container. Sterilization by dry heat is generally carried out in a hot-air oven. Heat is carried from its source to load by radiation, convention and to a small extent by conduction.

This process can eliminate heat-resistant endotoxin. In each cycle it is predominant to make sure that the entire content of each container is maintained for a successful blend of time and temperature for most part to allow temperature variations in hot-air ovens, which may be considerable. Dry heat is utilized to sterilize glassware, porcelain and metal equipment, oils and fats and powders i.e. talc, etc.

  1. Gas Sterilization: Gaseous sterilizing agents are of two main types, oxidizing and alkylating agents. Vapour phase hydrogen peroxide is an example of the former. Ethylene oxide and formaldehyde are instance of the alkylating agents. However, the BP states that gaseous sterilization is used when there is no acceptable replacement. The main advantage of ethylene oxide is that many types of materials, including thermo labile materials, can be sterilized without damage.

Low temperature steam with formaldehyde has been utilized as an option for sterilizing thermo labile substances. Both ethylene oxide and formaldehyde have health risks and strict monitoring of personnel revealed to the gases required to make sure protection from harmful effects.

  1. Sterilization by Radiation: Radiations can be split up into two groups: electromagnetic waves and streams of particulate matter. The former group consists infrared radiation, ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma rays. The latter group includes alpha and beta radiations. More frequently infrared radiation, ultraviolet light, gamma radiation and high-velocity electrons are utilized for sterilization.

(i) Ultraviolet Light:

A narrow range of UV wavelength is successful in eliminating the microorganism. The wavelength is powerfully absorbed by the nucleoproteins. The most important disadvantage of UV radiation as a sterilizing agent is its poor penetrating power. This is the result of powerful absorption by many substances. The application of UV radiation is limited.

(ii) Ionizing Radiations:

Ionizing radiations are satisfactory for commercial sterilization pro­cesses. It must have good penetrating power, high sterilizing efficiency, little or no damage result on irradiated materials and are capable of being produced efficiently. The radiations that satisfy these four measures are best high-speed electrons from machines and gamma rays from radioactive isotopes.

  1. Sterilization by Filtration: Membrane filters are built from cellulose derives or other polymers. There are no loose fibres or molecules in membrane filters. They keep molecules bigger than the pore size on the filter surface hence filters particularly useful in noticing of small numbers of bacteria.

Passage through a filter of suitable pore size can remove bacteria and moulds. Viruses and mycoplasma may not be maintained. After filtration the liquid is aseptically dispensed into formerly sterilized containers which are later sealed.

Other than this, it is tough to make universal statements about the various methods of sterilization because there can be huge non-identical in these considerations depending on the size and location of the sterilizer, as well as the methods waged for product release. All of these circumstances will influence selection of the sterilization process and the coherence with which it controls.

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Artificial Intelligence (A.I) in Food Industry

When discussing about the food industry, technology isn’t generally the first thought that comes to mind. But these days, technology in the food industry is a required part of food production and delivery processes. We find food through applications, and manufacturers produce it with the help of robotics and data processing. Tech could remarkably enhance packaging, increasing shelf life and food safety. The eminence of food is also improving while manufacturing costs are less.

Knowing what better to produce in huge amount of numbers is the key to increase revenue. Customer and market insistence are changing very fast, so it is even more important to be one-step ahead of the competition. Explaining the most habitual tastes and preferences is the most praised thing for a food business owner as well as for a food manufacturer. For example, the newest trends in food tech are attached to a stream of healthy lifestyle followers. In order to recognize them, Machine Learning utilizes the Data Collection and Classification methods to know which food tech solutions are going to be the most useful in the upcoming future. Artificial Intelligence (AI) for food acknowledges the human perception of flavor and likings, dividing users into various demographic groups and modeling their liking behavior or speculates what they need.

Whereas food manufacturers are worried with food safety regulations, they need to appear more transparent about the path of food in the supply chain. Here, Artificial Intelligence in food manufacturing helps to detect every stage of this process — it makes price and inventory management speculations and pursues the path of goods from where they are grown to the place where consumers receive it, ensuring transparency.

We already know that among the collaborations in AI technology, there are consequential investments in the Food processing and food manufacturing sector . For example, Artificial Intelligence (AI) can more easily predict many issues in agriculture than people can.

The Advantages of AI in the Food Industry are classified below:

  • Recently, many companies have started to trusting and relying on Artificial Intelligence to improve supply chain management thorough logistics and predictive analytics as well as to add transparency.
  • Digitization of the supply chain ultimately drives revenue and gives a good understanding of the situation. AI can examine enormous amounts of data that are beyond human capability.
  • Artificial Intelligence helps businesses to lessen the time to market and better deal with uncertainties.
  • Automated sorting will definitely lessen the labour costs, increase the speed of the process, and improve the quality of yields.

The implementation of AI (Artificial Intelligence) and Machine Learning (ML) in food manufacturing and restaurant businesses is already shifting the industry to a new level, enabling lesser human errors and less waste of abundant products; lowering costs for storage.

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