Understanding Coating and Techniques of coating!!!

A coating is a process in which layer of polymer or any material in liquid form used for depositing or covering the surface of the substrate. As per the Wikipedia the purpose of coating is decorative, functional or both. Decorative coating is done to achieve the aesthetic look and feel of material i.e. coating or painting on the fabrics with some artistic manner, on the other hand functional coating is applied achieve the adhesion, wetability, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, or water resistance.
The science of coating requires the understanding of the two phenomenon liquid flow and surface chemistry that deals with the solid to liquid relations. Study of viscosity and changed in the shape of liquid is very important in the process of coating.
Coatings are defined as mixtures of various materials. The materials are classified into four categories:

  • Resins
  • Pigments
  • Solvents
  • Additives

Techniques of the Coating:
Various coating techniques help in achieving the coating width of from thickness of some microns to mm, various coating techniques are as follows:

  • Gravure Coating Machine
  • Reverse Roll Coating Machine
  • Knife Over Roll Coating Machine
  • Air Knife coating
  • Metering Rod (Mayer Rod) Coating Machine
  • Slot Die Coating Machine
  • Curtain Coating Machine
  • Immersion/Dip Coating Machine
  • Hot melt Coating Machine
  • Web Coating Systems
  • Fabric Coating Machine

You can ask the experts such as KERONE those are pioneer in manufacturing and designing of various type of the coating machines and plants. We can be reached at info@kerone.com .

Understanding Concept and Application of Heat Exchangers

In this article let’s try to understand that, what is the heat exchanger and why to consider it, the former definition of that says it is a device that channelizes the heat from one medium to other medium, either by direct contact or by means of the induction.
Virtually all major industrial processes such as heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power plants, chemical processing plant , plastic, rubber, pharmaceutical, petroleum refineries, natural gas processing, and sewage treatment finds the application of the heat exchanger some or the other way. The efficiency and the rate of the transfer of the thermal energy of heat exchanger plays very critical role in the performance of the heating, drying and cooling.
The heat exchangers are generally of three basic classifications based on the heat flow

  • Parallel flow: where the fluids runs in same direction, parallel to each other.
  • Counter flow: where the fluid runs in opposite direction. 
  • Cross flow: where the fluids travel perpendicular to each other. 

Heat exchangers are also classified based on the construction:

  • Shell and tube heat exchanger
  • Plate heat exchanger
  • Plate and shell heat exchanger
  • Fluid heat exchangers
  • Plate fin heat exchanger 
  • Regenerative Heat Exchanger

Transfer of the heat for the diverse applications such as water to water, air to water, water to air, and air to air.
Heat exchanger avoids the direct contact hence high temperatures can not cause overheating but they could potentially start a fire in a unit if the temperature remains too hot for a period of time. Heat exchanges are used in a diverseness of industries such as home appliances, heating and cooling, marine and boating, ventilation and air flow, industrial manufacturing and many more. So many of the items that we use every day contain a heat exchanger in them and we never really think about the role that they play in these pieces.
You can ask the experts such as KERONE those are pioneer in manufacturing and designing of heat exchanger they will tell you how much this is important and what it exactly does when designed properly and consequences if not properly designed and taken care. We can be reached at info@kerone.com .


Paper Coating Machine

The paper and paper products plays more substantial role in the day-to-day life of the human, its usage are increasing every day in as newspapers, magazines, envelopes, books & diaries, stationeries, packaging and etc. the usage of paper and paper related products have become nearly unlimited. The increasing application has increased the demand of quality paper, majorly the paper quality is defined in terms of its smoothness, glossy finish, printability, uniform thickness and moisture contain.
The increasing demand of the paper the manufacturers wanted to have the paper manufacturing machines to produce higher quality paper, increase productivity, reduction in the waste, safe and improved process control. The paper manufacturing and paper coating process is known as one of the major dewatering process, which requires removal of all even a small amount of water also by the way of evaporation for the quality paper and coatings. The paper machine consist of the four sections Forming Section, Press Section, Drying Section, Calender Section. Wikipedia explains the sections as follows:

  • Forming section, commonly called the wet end, is where the slurry of fibres filters out fluid a continuous fabric loop to form a wet web of fibre.
  • Press section where the wet fibre web passes between large rolls loaded under high pressure to squeeze out as much water as possible.
  • Drying section, where the pressed sheet passes partly around, in a serpentine manner, a series of steam heated drying cylinders. Drying removes the water content down to a level of about 6%, where it will remain at typical indoor atmospheric conditions.
  • Calender section where the dried paper is smoothened under high loading and pressure. Only one nip (where the sheet is pressed between two rolls) is necessary in order to hold the sheet, which shrinks through the drying section and is held in tension between the press section (or breaker stack if used) and the calender. Extra nips give more smoothing but at some expense to paper strength.

The most critical part of the paper making process is drying the paper post press section to leave around 6% of the moisture contain within paper, hence the selection of the dryer and drying technology plays very vital role in total paper production system. In the dryer section, the paper entanglement passes over rotating; a cast iron cylinder which was heated by the means of heat transfer mechanism such as Convention, Conduction and/or Radiation and the most of the remaining water is removed by evaporation. When the paper leaves the dryer section its solid content has increased to about 90-95%. Thermal energy transferred from the heater is used for the dewatering of the paper in the dryer section.
Since the drying is critical in the entire paper production process as overlooking its criticality by the paper manufactures and/or plant operators may results in improper paper quality of paper, increased waste and reduced production. Hence the choice of the drying technology and dryers needs to be done properly by consulting with the leaders in the field of heater and heating technologies such as KERONE.
KERONE has been serving the paper and other manufacturing processes with its quality and technically superior innovative product quality since last 40 years. We at KERONE is have team of experts to help you with the your need of heating system from our wide experience. For any query write us at info@kerone.com .

Why and How to temper a Glass

From last decade we have seen increase in the usage of the Glass in various sectors such as façade of big corporate houses or residential buildings in real estate, home & office interior and decorative, crockery items, water bottles, in Automobile industry, and in last few years the use of small tempered glasses as protective screen guards for the mobile and other electronics systems especially in India and Asian countries. This increased usage of glass with greater human surrounding requires two important things first it should not break easily; second even if it broke it should not harm anyone in any sense.
Now the question is why and how to achieve the above mentioned requirements, the desired requirements are achieved by the way of heat treatment on the glass. This process of heat treatment is known as the Tempering; in tempering the glass is heated in the tempering oven of batch or continuous type, the glass is heated to its softening point of temperature of around 564 degree Celsius to 620 degree Celsius once the desired temperature is achieved the glass is cooled rapidly under high-pressure in few seconds is called “quenching”. This give the glass edges strengths and increases the breaking strength and safety, the properly tempered glass has strength to resist pressure and impact of up to 100, 00 psi to 240, 00 psi and when tempered glass breaks it breaks into relatively small and harmless fragments.
Characteristics of the Tempered Glass:

  • Tempered Glass can endure 4 to 5 time’s greater pressure than the annealed glass with physical property.
  • Thermal strength of the tempered glass is much higher.
  • Tempered glass breaks in small harmless fragments and does not results into sharp edges of the fragments, hence can be denoted as safety glass.
  • The basic property of the glass is maintained such as light transmission, radiating solar energy.
  • No cutting or shape change is possible once the glass is annealed.

We at KERONE have experience of 40 years in helping the industries with their heating needs, as to make the glass more usable the tempering is required and we have right solutions that fits the heating needs of the tempering process, we at KERONE is have team of experts to help you with the your need of heaters from our wide experience.For any query write us at info@kerone.com .


Understanding the Concept and Importance of the Annealing

After selective heating which was the heat treatment for specific application only we are trying to trough some light on the Annealing heat treatment process. In Annealing the material under the processing is heated to particular temperature, the desired temperature is held for the defined time duration, and afterwards allowed to cool at steady rate of cooling. Annealing process is sensitive to temperature and time, depending upon the material the choice of the temperature and time is required.
Process of annealing:
The first step of the annealing is to heat the material under the processing, the temperature is raised slowly at steady rate of rise of temperature this is done achieve the equal state of the expansion with caution that the molecules should not change their state from solid to viscous liquid. The second step is to hold the temperature for the few minutes, hours to days depending upon the material so that all the molecules release their stress and pressure. The third and very important step is cooling the rate of the cooling is very critical and should be controlled accordingly to avoid 1) the creation of various temperature spotting (variation in the temperature due to complex shape or thickness of material) 2) achieve proper molecules reformation to achieve the desired flexibility and agility in the material.
Variants of the Annealing:
Below are the some variants of the annealing process:

  • Full Annealing/Conventional Annealing
  • Isothermal Annealing
  • Spheroidise Annealing
  • Re-Crystallization Annealing
  • Stabilisation Annealing
  • Stress Relief Annealing

*Variants of the annealing we will try explaining in the upcoming blogs.
Benefits of the Annealing:
Annealing heat treatment is done across several industries on various types of materials such as metals (steel, Iron etc), Glass, Plastic and Etc. to achieve following benefits of the process:

  • Reduces the inner stress 
  • Increases Ductility 
  • Increases the toughness
  • Improves the homogeneity
  • Improves the agility 
  • Improves the material structure 
  • Reduces the hardness and brittleness 
  • Improves the magnetic property 
  • Improves the appearance of the material 

We at KERONE have experience of 40 years in helping the industries with their heating needs, as the annealing is very important heat treatment and selection of the proper heating system is very critical, we at KERONE is have team of experts to help you with the your need of annealing heating system from our wide experience. For any query write us at info@kerone.com .

Microwave Heating for the Food Processing

Microwave heating SystemsThe changing lifestyle, busy life and increase disposable income has raised the demand packaged ready to cook/eat food product, the demand and increasing consumption rate of the such foods for daily nutritional need had forced the food processing companies/units to produce high quality packaged foods with greater quantity, also maintaining the nutritional level of the food at the same time due to strict governing authorities.

The traditional heating systems were unable to deliver the   desired result in the stipulated time hence the food industries and their technology partners have started using the electromagnetic based heating systems, amongst the popular electromagnetic heating systems such as IR, RF and Microwave, the microwave type of heating systems have gain popularity.

The microwave heating has increased the production rate by reducing the cooking time; also the quality of microwave processed is good. The success point of the microwave was its ability to penetrate within the food product and result in heating from inner to outer surface; this made the microwave heating as ideal for the cooking, baking, thawing and etc. The food products processed in microwave usually evening cooked/heated.

Even though the microwave heating was proving it advantages but before using the it for the actual production the 2 major factors those were challenging, first one was the adaptability within the current system as replacing complete manufacturing facility were never feasible and economical and second was impact of the microwave electromagnetic waves on the materials under processing as it should not change the molecular property of the food processed and turn it the toxic or harm the mankind on consumption in any means. But due to it electromagnetic wavelength it only collides with the  molecules with in food and energizes them as soon as molecules get excited the total electromagnetic radiation is changed in the form of heat, hence it can never make food radioactive or contaminate. As the Microwaves utilizes low frequency electromagnetic energy (frequency range round 300-3000 Mhz), it never breaks the compound bonds. Thus, there is not any substantiated proof it causes undue chemical reaction that can happen in food and making it poisons or radioactive that can harm human health when consumed.

The application of microwave heating system provides beneficial approaches to defrost, cook or reheat foods. Numerous studies have been led to survey the security and conceivable supplement misfortune connected with microwave cooking. The best accessible confirmation upholds that the utilization of microwave cooking brought about foods with well being and supplement quality like those cooked by ordinary systems.

We at KERONE having 40 years experience in providing various type of heating solutions to processing industries, mainly customized, made best quality material and technically advanced heating system. We are having expertise in designing and manufacturing infrared heater, microwave heater , Radio frequency (RF) heaters and conventional heaters. For any query please feel free to contact info@kerone.com .

Understanding the Selective or Differential Heat Treatment

To have harden the metal and provide it the degree of the toughness and strength, the heat treatment if the metal is required, the heat treatment helps the metal to achieve the desired level strength by changing the micro-structure of the metal. Heating the metal to desired temperature and then cooling same a different rate of cooling help in material to release it pressure and help in achieving the desires softness and toughness.
Making of strong blades such as sword, knife and many industrial cutting blades require different amount of toughness (martensite) and softness. The martensite is achieved by heating the metal to certain temperature and then cooling by the means of immersing the hot metal in oil or water, this rapid change of the heat changes does not allow the carbon atoms to diffuse out of the crystal structure in large enough quantities. When the same material is heated to the desired temperature and then allowed to cool in open air, this cooling rate helps the material desired strength and flexibility.
Hence for making the swords, blades and knifes the differential heat treatment technique is used, because such blades require the desired toughness (Harden) with the strengths to handle the pressure while in application. The differential or selective heat treatment can be achieved by two ways; first by applying the same amount of heat the entire metal and later cooling down the desired areas at different rate. Second applying the different amount of heat at different part of the metal and the allow cooling accordingly. Differential heat treatment can also be achieved by the quenching the complete metal and the tempering only selected area.
We at KERONE has experience of years in helping the industries with their heating needs, we have wide experience in metal heat treatment. For any query write us at info@kerone.com .

An Introduction to Indirect Dryers

Hi, I am writing this blog on behalf of KERONE a 40 year young (#40yearsyoung) organization has emerged as an quality manufacturer of technically advanced and challenging heating and drying system, to introduce its reads about the some aspects of the Indirect dryers. The word indirect itself defines that these types of the dryers in which the heater and the subject material under the drying process are separate. The formal definition given by the Hall (1980) that “the indirect dryers are dryers in which the heating medium does not come into contact with the product being dried”.
Unlike direct contact dryers in the indirect dryers the wet material to be dried is heated by means of contacting the material to heater surface i.e. heater heats contacted surface (heat exchanger) and wet materials in placed on such heated surface, this process is known as conduction. The greatest concern points while selecting the dryers are 1) Material to be dried 2) Product quality that is required; hence these points are always required to be taken in to consideration before selecting best fit for of the indirect dryers. The temperature and heating source also largely get influenced by the residence time (time for which the material will reside within the heater) of subject material, as to have lower residence time the high heat source is required to get higher temperature and lower temperature is required for the longer residential time.
Advantages of the Indirect Dryers:

  • The indirect dryer offer higher energy efficiency as compared to direct dryer
  • The loss of the energy through exhaust gas stream as minimum
  • Waste heat can also be utilized for the drying
  • Being closed loop the vapor produced while drying are also utilized to increase the temperature
  • Indirect dryers need minimum cleaning of the exhaust gas as the exhaust flow is low
  • Suitable for the toxic and active materials as low emission of fines and particles from the dryer
  • Vacuum drying can also be easily achieved 
  • Ideal for heat sensitive materials
  • Risk of fire and explosion hazards is reduced to greater extend as drying is from conduction 

Limitation of the Indirect Dryers:

  • Limitation of rate of heat transfer and availability of the heat transfer areas for large scale equipments
  • Indirect dryers also have reduce upper limit of drying temperature and maximum throughput when compared to direct dryers
  • Indirect dryers have typically higher capital costs due to the need for heat exchange surfaces

Application of Indirect Dryers:
Indirect dryers have proven their successful usage in drying of following applications:

  1. Food and dairy products 
  2. Baby Food 
  3. Milk and buttermilk 
  4. Potato flakes
  5. Black Carbon and Etc. 

If you wish to have more information or have any business enquiry then write us on info@kerone.com .

Applications and Advantages of Vacuum Dryers

Drying is the process of the removal of the water or solvents by the process of evaporation; hence the output of dryer must be a solid material in the form of any defined structure or powder. To achieve the dried output the heat is applied to evaporate water or solvents.
What if I say we have to dry the heat sensitive material; how will dry them if heat is applied to evaporate the water or solvent contents then material itself can get harmed as being the heat sensitive material, hence the special provisions required to dry such heat sensitive materials. To dry such heat sensitive materials it’s required to lower down the environmental pressure, as the water and many solvents reach to boiling point at lower temperature with the pressure is lower by creating the vacuum, hence this process is known as vacuum drying (#vacuumdrying). The marriage of heat and vacuum together have proven as very effective source of the drying at relatively lower temperature, the moisture content in the material dried via vacuum dryers are lower as compared to normal dryer, those are not using the vacuum.
We at KERONE are specialized in manufacturing the superior quality and customized vacuum dryers contacting various type of drying technologies such as microwave vacuum dryer, hot water vacuum dryer, electrical vacuum dryer and etc.
Advantages of the Vacuum dryers:

  1. Vacuum dryers are very efficient heat sensitive
  2. Materials can be dryers in containers or enclosures
  3. Average drying temperature is much lower than standard dryers 
  4. Drying action becomes faster as heat is easily transferred throughout the body of the dryers, due to its large surface area
  5. Dries large moisture as compared to normal dryers 
  6. Quality of dries material is better than that of the normal dryers

Limitation of vacuum dryers:

  1. Vacuum Drying process is batch type drying process (#dryingprocess) It has low efficiency.
  2. Vacuum dryers are expensive 
  3. Vacuum dryers require skilled labour to operate 
  4. Cost of maintenance are high

Application of the Vacuum dryers:
The Vacuum dryers find application in various type of the industries such as:

  1. Chemical process industries
  2. Food processing 
  3. Pharmaceutical
  4. Plastic
  5. Timber
  6. Paper and other industries

For any information or query you can write us at info@kerone.com or visit our site .

Importance of Dryer for Ceramic Industries

High quality ceramic products are finding application in multiple domains such as pottery, archeology, construction, design & decoration, foundries, electronics & electrical and etc. as the demand of ceramic products are increasing in the respective sectors, the pressure on producers to deliver the right amount of the ceramic or compound products has increased significantly. The ceramic manufacturing (#ceramicmanufacturing)) process involves majorly 4 steps: Step- 1) Selecting the raw material Step -2) Preparation of Raw material (i.e. clay of production) step-3) providing the desired shape and size to ceramic product (i.e. Molding the ceramics) step-4) Drying (to maintain the mold shape). The ceramics materials are sensitive to the surrounding atmosphere hence drying is very important for precisely designing the mold, determining the high-efficient heating rate and maintaining the desired level of drying temperature and duration (#importanceofdrying). With the time of science of ceramic material, production process and demand are changing and accordingly the required type and rate of drying.
The quality ceramic production process requires drying during the preparation process such as grinding, mixing, granulation as first phase of drying, second phase of drying appears after the molding to remove the water/moisture level present to achieve the desired strength and maintain the mold form. The quality of ceramic is highly affected by the 1)rate of rise of temperature in dryer 2)irregular deformation and shrinking 3)irregular or none-uniform rate of drying 4)Creating of black spot or none dryable spot due to complex shape(#qualityceramicproduct). The drying processes are very important for the accurate design of molds and the achievement of highly quality majorly with the ceramic having complex shapes or large sizes in which the uniform density distribution is very difficult to achieve.
IR Tunnel OvenTunnel type dryers are typically used for continues drying of ceramics, hence the drying temperature and length of the tunnel are very critical components; hence it’s always advisable to consult the experts of the field such as KERONE of the selection best suited drying system. KERONE is holding 40 years (#fortyyearold) of rich experience in designing the critical dryers for the quality applications. KERONE’s Infrared based dryer for the ceramic to achieve the uniform and high rate of drying, but sometimes not effective with complex shapes and large thickness. KERONE’s microwave dryer helps ceramics to dry from within the material i.e. from the inner to outer part of material. KERONE (#innovationatkerone) also provides hybrid drying system for ceramic drying, for more details kindly contact us at info@kerone.com.