How do you make Dairy products fit for consumption?

Dairy products are basically products made from containing milk of mammals, which include food products like yoghurt, cheeses and butter among others. These products have been a part of staple food in many countries and used in traditional cuisines as well. Rates of dairy consumption vary widely worldwide. The consumption can be as high as 150kg per capita and also under 30 kg per capita in some countries.

Milk is a valuable nutritious food that has a short shelf-life and requires careful handling. Milk is highly perishable because it is an excellent medium for the growth of microorganisms – particularly bacterial pathogens – that can cause spoilage and diseases if consumed without precautions. Hence, milk processing, this allows the preservation of milk for days, weeks or months and helps to reduce food-borne illness. The usable life of milk can be extended for several days through techniques such as –

  • Clarification – particles with dense solids are separated from continuous milk phase.
  • Skimming – separation of cream from skim milk.
  • Whey Separation – separation of fat.
  • Centrifugation – process similar to clarification but more precise on particle sedimentation.
  • Pasteurization – heat treatment process to reduce the number of possible pathogenic microorganisms.
  • Fermentation – cooling to a specific temperature to influence the quality of raw milk.
  • Concentration – process of preparing products like butter, cheese and ghee with long shelf lives.
  • Preservation – process of instigating the natural inhibitors in milk (e.g., lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase) prevent significant rises in bacterial numbers for a limited period.

India in Dairy Processing:

  • Output of around 163.7 million MT, India is the largest producer of milk globally
  • India’s milk production is expected to reach 180 million MT by 2020
  • Indian dairy market is amongst the largest and fastest growing markets in the world
  • India has attained the top position in milk production globally, owing to a huge bovine population. However, the full potential of Indian milch herd still remains unattained
  • Per capita availability of milk in India has reached 352 grams per day
  • #1 in the world for production of milk
  • India’s dairy products exports is around USD 0.3 Bn in 2016-17
  • Major destinations for India’s dairy exports are UAE, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Nepal

Processing systems by KERONE
KERONE designs, manufactures and installs machinery batch as well as continuous, power sourced by microwave, infrared, radio frequency and convection radiation for all types of processes including dairy food sterilization. Whether you’re making milk for ambient or chilled distribution, fermented products or dairy powders, we thoroughly understand the complexities of dealing with this sensitive product. Reducing environmental impacts is also an important aspect for the dairy industry, and hence all our equipment and solution development is focused on minimizing utilities consumption and reducing the product losses and wastages generated by the process.

Why choose us?
Since the last 42 years, accuracy, efficiency, machine quality and output quality are not just words but KERONE’s lifetime commitment towards our profession since its inception, creating a base of more than 1000 loyal customers. Our systems are used to meet the varying demands of numerous industrial applications – all with a level of precision that manufacturers seek. Fulfilling demands as per client’s specification has been our USP and we strive to carry the same forward. We also provide detailed assistance for installation without much hassle of complex functioning of the machinery. We always strive to achieve more than client satisfaction with our timely delivery, quality and efficiency towards every oven manufactured by us.

The discrete choice for heating and drying solutions: Ceramic Heating Systems

Ceramic is an inorganic non-metallic solid made up of either metal or non-metal compounds that have been shaped and then hardened by heating to high temperatures. In general, they are hard, corrosion-resistant and brittle and been in use for thousands of years. We have practically been living in a ceramic world as almost every material like; Glass, tiles, pottery, porcelain, bricks, cement, diamond, and graphite, contains ceramic.
Ceramics are also called as “refractory” materials, which is a material science term that means competent of putting up with everyday abuses like extremes of temperature change, attacks from acids and alkalis, and general wear-and-tear, these properties makes the material durable, better functioning and economical. Understanding all these exceptional properties, it is also being used in various Industrial heating systems.
Ceramic heating systems, whether emitting microwave or infrared rays provide heat by sending electricity through the heating plates. As the plates get warmer, they heat up the aluminium baffles. Then, a fan blows the warm air from the baffles and into the room. One of the many benefits of using this type of heater is that it provides a constant source of heat but doesn’t get hot enough to pose a fire hazard or burn risk. Since the heating elements in this heater are completely surrounded by the ceramic parts, it is safer than most other types.
Some significant features of these Industrial systems:

  1. Efficiency and Speed – These heaters do not waste a lot of energy.
  2. Overheating Prevention and Security – Fans and thermostats inside the heaters prevent it from overheating.
  3. Convection over Radiation – These heaters work by way of convection heating.
  4. Size and Portability – Easily portable as not huge in size.
  5. Safety Features and Characteristics – able to operate at a low temperature and do not emit any poisonous fumes or chemicals.

KERONE has a wide range of Infrared/ Microwave heating systems in Ceramic and Quartz Types. Available Ex-stock (With thermocouple & without thermocouple from 100 watts to 1000 watts) for Applications such as:

  • Curing of coatings
  • Plastic shrinking/ shrink packaging
  • Plastic heating prior to forming
  • Plasticize foils & sheets Glass & metal heat treating
  • Thermoforming and Vacuum Forming.
  • PVC Pipe belling and Socketing.
  • Drying various material (wood, paper and eatables)
  • Hot stamping.
  • Heat Therapy.
  • Cooking

As every coin has two sides, just like that with so many invaluable advantages Ceramic heating systems too have a couple of disadvantages; it only works on electricity and though it is safe than other heaters, it should never be taken for granted and must always be handled with care & concern.
KERONE is named among the leaders of Infrared or Microwave Ceramic heating system’s manufactures based on the specialized heating and drying need of customers, our highly efficient team of engineers are expert in the manufacturing the customized heaters
Why choose us?
Accuracy, efficiency, machine quality and output quality are not just words but KERONE’s lifetime commitment towards our profession since last 42 years, creating a base of more than 1000 loyal customers. Our ceramic heating systems are used to meet the varying demands of numerous industrial applications – all with a level of precision that manufacturers seek. We also provide detailed assistance for installation without much hassle of complex functioning of the machinery. We always strive to achieve more than client satisfaction with our timely delivery, quality and efficiency towards every oven manufactured by us.

Facts and Figures of Microwave Radiation & Heating

In the growing technology and cut throat environment for engineering, industries and demanding new and improved processing methods which can be implemented for a wider variety of materials and can yield better physical and mechanical properties of materials than conventional routes. Presently wider varieties of non-conventional processing methods are in use, but energy consumptions and processing time requirements are the main issues. Hence, Microwave radiations are found to be advantageous in terms of qualities imparted to the materials in terms of physical, mechanical, metallurgical, etc. and along with this energy and time savings during processing.
Microwave heating is a process whereby microwave rays produced by magnetrons are directed toward reactants or heating medium, which absorb the electromagnetic energy volumetrically to achieve self-heating uniformly and rapidly. These microwave rays are electromagnetic radiation and the frequency range lies between 1 and 300GHz and these microwave frequencies with different wavelengths are used for a wide variety of applications. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC), for heating purposes in industrial, scientific, and medical systems has reserved 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz frequencies. The heating by microwaves involves direct absorption of radiations by materials, then converts it into heat energy, and leads to volumetric heating of materials. The work of the authors reported that microwave heating consumes 10–100 times less energy and 10–200 times lesser processing times compared to conventional routes. Materials placed in the microwave environment are classified as insulators, conductors, semiconductors, and superconductors.

The heating prodigies are different for conventional and microwave processing of materials. Conventional processing methods involve heating the surface and then transferring heat into the materials by the phenomenon of conduction, convention, and radiation; whereas in microwave heating, the electromagnetic energy gets converted into heat from within the material, which moves toward the outer direction from the core/center of materials.
This microwave heating mechanism offers many advantages over conventional heating due to the following factors:

  • The direct absorption of microwaves by materials allows volumetric heating which produces enhanced diffusion rates, reduced power consumptions, and lower processing times.
  • These characteristics of higher heating rates and higher diffusion rates allow improvements in physical and mechanical properties of the microwave-processed materials or components owing to which defect rates are lower.
  • Further occurrence of volumetric heating provides selective heating and uniform heating, leading to decreased processing temperatures, reduced thermal gradient, reduced heat-affected zone, and lower environmental hazards.

In recent years, the utilization of microwaves in various applications has increased many folds. The various processing domains where this technology has been applied successfully are:

  • Communication systems
  • Food processing, wood drying
  • Enhanced chemical reactions
  • Vulcanization of rubber
  • Processing of ceramics and metallic materials
  • Steel making
  • Glass tempering
  • Joining of materials
  • Welding, waste treatment
  • Recovery of alternate sources of energy

Since last 42 years KERONE has been the leader in providing innovative and technically advanced solutions to industrial producers, our expertise and devotion makes KERONE the preferred choice of the clients. We have been innovating in the field of heating, drying and cooling solutions in various heating technologies prioritizing Microwave heating that find application in numerous industrial processes & plants. KERONE’s USP is that we provide microwave based solutions not before studying the detailed industrial needs & requirements of the client. The heating systems are then designed dedicatedly and produced to achieve desired output of high quality and high efficiency.

Why choose us?
Accuracy, efficiency, machine quality and output quality are not just words but KERONE’s lifetime commitment towards our profession since last 42 years, creating a base of more than 1000 loyal customers. Our microwave heating systems are used to meet the varying demands of numerous industrial applications – all with a level of precision that manufacturers seek. We also provide detailed assistance for installation without much hassle of complex functioning of the machinery. We always strive to achieve more than client satisfaction with our timely delivery, quality and efficiency towards every oven manufactured by us.

To Make Stronger Ceramics Product, By Microwave Sintering

Microwave heating is a process whereby microwaves couple to materials, which absorb the electromagnetic energy volumetrically and transform it into heat. This differs from conventional methods in which heat is transferred between objects through the mechanisms of conduction, radiation and convection. As the material itself generates the heat, the heating is more volumetric and can be very rapid and selective. When applied to Ceramic materials, microwave processing opens up opportunities to reduce costs and energy consumption while improving productivity and material properties. Thus, microwave sintering techniques allows for the application of high heating rates, markedly shortening the processing time.

The possibility of processing ceramics by microwave heating was discussed over 50 years ago by Von Hippel. Since then, the results of many investigations into microwave sintering and joining of ceramics have been reported. Activity in this field began to accelerate in the late 1970s and 1980s. While most of today’s industrial microwave applications involve the relatively low temperature processing of food, wood, rubber, polymers, etc., interest in high-temperature microwave processing of materials has been growing. In recent years, microwave heating has been widely employed in the sintering and joining of ceramics. In microwave heating, a polar molecule is exposed to electromagnetic radiation at a frequency that is in the microwave range (0.3 GHz to 300 GHz). This exposure to microwave energy causes rotation in the polar molecule, which causes friction resulting in heat being generated. This phenomenon is also referred to as dielectric heating. As the heat is generated within the material and then travels to the outer surface, it saves quite a considerable processing time while keeping the surrounding temperature least affected.

Ceramic products are produced after passing through a tedious process, that being –

  1. Raw material slurry
  2. Spray Drying
  3. Shaping
  4. Heating
  5. Sintering

Microwave radiation comes in use in the last step of the process that is “sintering” which in layman’s language means heating the material so the ceramic particles stick together for better strength & longevity. Sintering is used in the manufacture of pottery and other ceramic objects. These objects are made from substances such as glass, alumina, zirconia, silica, magnesia, lime, beryllium oxide, and ferric oxide.

Advantages of Microwave Radiation in ceramic sintering:

  • Uniform heating
  • Increases Process speed
  • Acceptable chemical and physical effects
  • Selective/Volumetric heating
  • No fumes and pollutants
  • Improves reproducibility
  • Reduce wastage of heat

The microwave fast sintering appears as an alternative for the sintering and densification of ceramics with suppressed grain growth. By the reference of various researches, it is confirmed that microwave hybrid fast sintering can be employed successfully to sinter low and high dielectric loss ceramics, producing highly dense ceramics and suppressing grain growth in the final stages of sintering. Successful microwave fast sintering depends on the strict control of sintering conditions, striking an adequate balance between power and time or temperature and time to obtain highly dense and homogeneous microstructures.
In fact, the real benefit of microwave processing has less to do with the direct coupling of microwave energy to the part, and more to do with the flexibility afforded to the equipment designer.
Why choose us?
Since the last 42 years, KERONE has been designing, manufacturing and installing machinery, power sourced by microwave, infrared, radio frequency and convection radiation for all types of industries including Ceramics. Accuracy, efficiency, machine quality and output quality are not just words but KERONE’s lifetime commitment towards our profession since its inception, creating a base of more than 1000 loyal customers. Our microwave heating systems are used to meet the varying demands of numerous industrial applications – all with a level of precision that manufacturers seek. Fulfilling demands as per client’s specification has been our USP and we strive to carry the same forward. We also provide detailed assistance for installation without much hassle of complex functioning of the machinery. We always strive to achieve more than client satisfaction with our timely delivery, quality and efficiency towards every oven manufactured by us.

Get the Right Heating Solution for Your Rubber Products

Microwave heating is a multiphysics phenomenon that involves electromagnetic waves and heat transfer. In a layman’s language, the material to be heated is exposed to electromagnetic waves, this passage charges up every single molecule of the material resulting in rise of temperature of the same material. This exerts pressure, which pushes the moisture in the material towards the surface which is then evaporated. Microwave heating is a commercially available method of heating liquids, suspensions, or solids in a continuous flow on an industrial scale. The pattern of microwave heat distribution depends on many physical parameters, which includes the electromagnetic field, the absorption rate and structure of the processed material, and also the dimensions of the heating container. It is also used for household purposes but on a lower scale.

Manufacturers wanting to produce new products, build new plants, or automate should consider microwave heating for their specialized heating applications. Microwave heating is a quick and efficient method of heating materials that are difficult to heat by convection or infrared methods, so there is a hike in production rates and improvement in product quality. The key parameter in Industrial Microwave Heating is uniform heat distribution. This can be achieved by different methods, which may involve computer simulation and different mechanical mechanisms such as turntables & stirrers. A proper microwave energy pattern is necessary for attaining a uniform heat release.
Conventional heating methods require heat conduction from the material’s surface inward; they are slow and inefficient for materials that conduct heat poorly. The direct and efficient heating supplied by microwave energy offers several advantages for the production of these materials. To understand Microwave heating better, let’s look at some of its advantages as listed below:

  1. Quick heat penetration
  2. Selective heating
  3. Responsive to automation
  4. Improvement in product quality
  5. Increases flexibility
  6. Combined with conventional methods
  7. High energy efficiency
  8. Space savings

Though the most widespread industrial use of microwave heating is for food processing, but it is also effective for other hard-to-heat products, such as –

  • Rubber
  • Ceramics
  • Polymer
  • Minerals & Metals
  • Waste Recycling
  • Chemicals and pharmaceuticals

New applications are emerging rapidly and gaining popularity as manufacturers discover the unique benefits of microwave heating.
In this blog, you will understand the applications of microwave heating in the Rubber Industry.

   

Microwave heating saves energy during batch preheating of rubber before setting into different product moulds. It has converted rubber vulcanization, which is required for strength and resiliency, from a batch process to a continuous one. As rubber is one of the materials that conducts heat poorly, conventional heating systems lags the process but microwave energy rapidly heats the rubber within its bulk, up to five times faster than hot air heating. Rubber is continuously extruded, microwave heated and vulcanized, and formed into products such as gaskets, tyres etc.
The Results:

  • More desirable product
  • Increased flexibility
  • Elimination of steps
  • Reduced labour costs
  • Optimum use of material
  • Less floor space
  • Saves energy
  • Safer work environment

Some Guidelines to be considered

  • Ability to exposure to microwave heat
  • Temperature of the environment
  • The optimum time of heating (not less, not more)
  • Possibility of absorbing hybrid heat treatment (microwave+ convention)

KERONE Engineering Solutions Ltd. is a pioneer in application and implementing engineering solutions with its vast experience and team of professionals. Since last 42 years, it has been into designing, manufacturing & installing of Industrial machinery for various processing needs. The engineers & professionals at KERONE have in depth knowledge of different heating technologies and provide solutions applying them in a huge no. of Industrial machines.

Why choose us?
Accuracy, efficiency, machine quality and output quality are not just words but our commitment towards our profession since last 42 years, creating a base of more than 1000 loyal customers. Our microwave heating systems are used to meet the varying demands of numerous industrial applications – all with a level of precision that manufacturers seek. We also provide detailed assistance for installation without much hassle of complex functioning of the machinery. We always strive to achieve more than client satisfaction with our timely delivery, quality and efficiency towards every oven manufactured by us.

The Precision behind your Industrial Baking Ovens

It is time to enjoy various delicacies especially the baked goodies. Be it relishing on a Monginis cake, a Cadbury celebrations pack or on Mom’s homemade cookies filled with love and care.


Acknowledging your cravings of the mouth watering items, KERONE has to offer Industrial Ovens of customizable sizes for various Industrial purposes. In this extract you get to know everything about a Baking Oven. Beginning with what is an Oven?
“An oven is an enclosed cavity or tunnel where dough or batter is placed amidst a hot environment and is then baked and transformed into cake, bread, cookies, or other products.”
Baking Ovens are major equipment for bakery process. In order to bake the products, Ovens use energy generation sources, e.g.: combustion of fuels (gas or oil) or electricity. The released available energy from these sources is transferred to the products by means of radiation, conduction or convection. The oven sets and maintains the proper conditions of heat, humidity, and temperature to carry out the baking process and the removal of moisture from the products to eliminate the possible existence of microbes improving the shelf life of the baked products. Meticulous baking would give us appetizing baked items with desired texture & taste.
Not only the baking ovens, but also its supplementary accessories, being circulating fan, steam extraction chimneys, safety explosion doors, fire tube, burners, temperature controller & indicators, fuel system and baking moulds are of grave importance. For the selection of baking oven various dimensions are taken into consideration such as height, width, weight, chimney size, foundation method, electrical wiring and automation. Keeping all these specifications in mind KERONE provides customizable Ovens to our valuable clients catering to their industrial requirements.
Baking Ovens are classified based on various parameters, which are the following:

  1. Physical Characteristics: Rack, Rotary Rack, Tunnel, Swing, Tray Ovens etc.
  2. Heating: Direct, Indirect, Hybrid, Convection, Radiation etc.
  3. Loading: Top or Front load
  4. Fuel Used: Diesel, Gas, Oil, Electric, Infrared
  5. Wire Bands: Articulated, Flat Steel, Modular
  6. Design: Mark III, TRP, Mark II Ovens

The type of oven that suits a bakery’s operation may be a function of production capacity, product specifications, floor space, available energy sources, operation efficiencies, construction materials, and maintenance needs.
Maintenance of ovens
Installation of excellent Ovens alone is not important but timely maintenance is also vital.
Oven maintenance focuses on two major goals:

1. Prevent food safety hazards – (physical, biological, and chemical) reducing foreign material contamination, under-processing, and contamination with lubricants. These hazards may pose a food safety risk to customers and the loss of a good reputation and money for the company.
2. Prevent equipment failures – (mechanical, electrical, and thermal) equipment failures that could have a negative impact on daily oven operations and increase downtime, triggering significant economic losses.
Inspection and maintenance of equipment and calibration of measuring and instrumentation devices are vital for smooth oven operation.

KERONE is the leading manufacturer of Industrial Ovens in India. The high quality industrial ovens and various heating systems have been designed for temperature as high as 400°C, large capacity working chambers and provide extreme distribution. We provide Ovens with the following applications other than baking:

  • Annealing
  • Curing
  • Bonding Finish
  • Sterilization/Depyrogenation
  • Burn-In
  • Laboratory Testing
  • Heat Treating
  • Clean Process Production
  • Drying
  • Shrink Fitting
  • Aging

Baking Ovens are used for baking breads, cookies, biscuits, cakes, pizza and cream rolls and are also used for the functions of curing & drying.

Why choose us?
Accuracy, efficiency, machine quality and output quality are not just words but our commitment towards our profession since last 42 years, creating a base of more than 1000 loyal customers. Our baking oven systems are used to meet the varying demands of numerous industrial applications – all with a level of precision that manufacturers seek. We also provide detailed assistance for installation without much hassle of complex functioning of the machinery. We always strive to achieve more than client satisfaction with our timely delivery, quality and efficiency towards every oven manufactured by us.

Indirect Dryers Outdo Direct Dryers in Drying Applications

A Rotary Dryer is a type of industrial dryer employed to reduce or minimize the liquid moisture content of the material it is handling by bringing it into contact with a heated gas. These dryers are a critical component in many industrial processes, capable of processing all sorts of materials from chemicals & fertilizers to minerals & ores and nearly everything in between. The dryer is made up of a large, rotating cylindrical tube, usually supported by concrete columns or steel beams. The dryer is inclined to slopes slightly so that the discharge end is lower than the material feed end in order to convey the material through the dryer without opposing the gravity.

Rotary Dryers are extensively used for Drying but the following processes can be combined with it:

  • Cooling
  • Cleaning
  • Shredding
  • Separating

Features of Rotary Dryers:

  • Robust construction with various lifter (internal fins) options
  • Can be co-current or counter-current
  • Permits use of higher drying temperatures
  • Relatively long residence time
  • Highly efficient functions
  • Economic fuel and energy consumption
  • Low Maintenance cost
  • Reduced capital and operating costs
  • Huge capacity available as compared to other dryers

Rotary Dryers are majorly classified on the basis of heat transfer:

  1. Direct Rotary Dryer
  2. Indirect Rotary Dryer

Direct Rotary Dryers use direct contact between the material and drying air to scale down the moisture content of the material. Hot steam/air is circulated within the dryer, with the material being lifted up and rolled back down by a series of internal fins lined along the inner wall of the dryer. These dryers are used throughout a multitude of industries, including fertilizer and agriculture, mining and minerals, specialty chemicals, and more. They offer heavy-duty processing and consistent reliability.


But the direct dryers are at a disadvantage when assigned to dry material pigments or combustible materials as there is a risk of contamination or losing the original components of the materials. Hence the Indirect Rotary Dryers are brought into application. These dryers work on steam/air which is preheated by some means where burner combustion gases do not enter the dryer and have no direct contact with the material being processed. It commonly finds its application with food grade materials, highly combustible materials, organics such as grains and pulps, and fine materials such as pigments.
Rotary dryers can be widely used to dry various materials, and are simple to operate. They are used to process the following materials at the respective industries:

  • Metallic and nonmetallic minerals at Mining Industry
  • Sands, stones and soil at the Cement & Construction Industry
  • Wood chips at Wood Processing Industry
  • Food grains, cereals, pulses, seeds, fermented leaves at the food processing Industry

In some cases, combination of direct-indirect rotary dryers is also available to improve the overall efficiency.
Why choose us?
Accuracy, efficiency, machine quality and output quality are not just words but KERONE’s lifetime commitment towards our profession since last 42 years, creating a base of more than 1000 loyal customers. Our heating & drying systems are used to meet the varying demands of numerous industrial applications – all with a level of precision that manufacturers seek. We also provide detailed assistance without much hassle of complex functioning of the machinery. We always strive to achieve more than client satisfaction with our timely delivery, quality and efficiency towards every machine manufactured by us.

Kudos to HEATING SYSTEMS, for its contribution in Plastic Industry

In the last few decades, the Plastic industry has grown to the status of one of the leading sectors in the country as a matter of fact, the whole world with a sizable base. The material is gaining notable importance in almost every sphere of activity like transport, aerospace, electronics, transportation & FMCG products and the per capita consumption is increasing at a fast pace. Some of the continuous advancements and developments in polymer technology which are to be given the credit for the rising status of plastics in our daily lives are:

  • Processing machineries
  • Expertise
  • Cost effective manufacturing

Plastic is a material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects. Apart from malleability, other features like, low cost, ease of manufacture, versatility, and imperviousness to water, plastics are used in a multitude of products of different scale, from paper clips to spacecraft. It has prevailed and is fast replacing the traditional materials, such as wood, stone, horn & bone, leather, metal, glass, and ceramic, in some products previously left to natural materials.
For plastic to reach such great heights, Industrial heaters or Heating Systems have played the substantial role. These heating systems help in the processing of plastic by softening polymers in order to shape it into the desired form and inevitably into the products usually used. Hence, selecting the right equipment can aid the goal of higher productivity and greater yields.
Role of Heating Systems in Plastic Industry:
Heating systems are made of various heating equipments like Band heaters, Tubular heaters, flange heaters, cartridge heaters, and Strip heaters which are commonly used in the plastics industry. Thermocouples and precise digital controllers are also used to maintain target temperatures for each application.
Following are the plastic manufacturing processes where Heaters are involved:

  • Blow Molding: Process generally used for forming glass bottles.
  • Extrusion: Process in which raw plastic is melted and formed into a continuous profile.
  • Injection Molding: Refers to shaping of rubber/plastic articles by injecting heated material into a mould.
  • Thermoforming: Process of heating a thermoplastic material and shaping it in a mould.

Heating systems required for these processes should be robust radiant heater, reliable, accurate, high performing, temperature sensor and control solutions. KERONE offers custom heating system, sensor and control solutions at a very competitive price that provide fast thermal response, consistent temperature accuracy with long life for a wide variety of industrial applications.
KERONE designs, manufactures and supplies heating systems in various technologies including, Microwave, Infrared and Convection. We have a variety of categories of heating systems including, heaters and heating equipments to choose from.
Why choose us?
Accuracy, efficiency, machine quality and output quality are not just words but our commitment towards our profession since last 42 years, creating a base of more than 1000 loyal customers. Our heating systems can be used for numerous industrial applications in various industries – all with a level of precision that manufacturers demand. We also provide detailed assistance without much hassle of complex functioning of the machinery. We always strive to achieve more than client satisfaction with our timely delivery, quality and efficiency towards every machine manufactured by us.

Operational Functions of Infrared Heating in Food Industry

Heat transfer occurs through one of 3 methods, Conduction, Convection, and Radiation. Foods and biological materials are heated primarily to extend their shelf life or to enhance taste. In conventional heating, which is achieved by combustion of fuels or by an electric resistive heater, heat is generated outside of the object to be heated and is conveyed to the material by convection of hot air or by thermal conduction. By exposing an object to Infrared (IR) radiation (wavelength of 0.78 to 1000 μm), the heat energy generated can be absorbed by food materials ready to be consumed in comparatively less time and better quality. Certain characteristics of IR heating have lately increased its demand gaining more popularity such as listed below:

  • Reduced Heating time
  • Efficiency
  • Uniform heating
  • Reduced quality losses
  • Higher thermal efficiency
  • Faster Heating Rate
  • Absence of solute migration in food material
  • Compact equipment
  • Significant energy saving

Combinations of IR heating with microwave heating and other common conductive and convective modes of heating have been gaining momentum because of increased energy throughput. Further in this article, aspects of IR heating and presents a theoretical basis for IR heat processing of food materials and the interaction of IR radiation with food components are explained.

Interaction of IR radiation with food components:
The effect of IR radiation on optical and physical properties of food materials is crucial for the design of an infrared heating system and optimization of a thermal process of food components. The infrared spectra of such mixtures originate with the mechanical vibrations of molecules thus processing the food and bringing out the best end results.
When radiant electromagnetic energy impinges upon a food surface, it may induce changes in the electronic, vibrational, and rotational states of atoms and molecules. As food is exposed to infrared radiation, the radiation is absorbed, reflected, or scattered. Absorption intensifies at different wavelengths of different food components. The food processing systems should be accustomed to various food substances and their ability to absorb heat at different wavelengths
Interactions of light with food material and the crucial optical principles are divided into three main types for better understanding, such as:

  • Regular reflection (takes place at the surface of a material)
  • Body reflection (light enters the material, diffuses due to light scattering, and undergoes some absorption)
  • Light scattering (leaves the material close to where it enters)

Regular reflection produces only the gloss or shine of polished surfaces, whereas body reflection produces the colors and patterns that constitute most of the information obtained visually. For materials with a rough surface, both regular and body reflection can be observed. Most organic materials reflect 4% of the total reflection producing a shine of polished surfaces. The rest of the reflection occurs where radiation enters the food material and scatters, producing different color and patterns. It was also observed that as the thickness of the layer increases, a simultaneous decrease in transmittance and increase in reflection occurs.
Applications of IR heating in food processing operations:
The application of infrared radiation to food processing has gained momentum due to its inherent advantages over the conventional heating systems. IR radiation has been widely applied to various thermal processing operations in the food industry such as –

  1. Drying
  2. Baking
  3. Roasting
  4. Blanching
  5. Pasteurization
  6. Sterilization

Sources of IR heating:
Two conventional types of infrared radiators used for process heating are:

  • Electric heaters
  • Gas‐fired heaters

These 2 types of IR heaters generally fit various temperature ranges. IR temperatures are typically used in the range of 650 to 1200 °C to prevent charring of products. The capital cost of gas heaters is higher, while the operating cost is cheaper than that of electric infrared systems. Electrical infrared heaters are popular because of installation controllability, ability to produce prompt heating rate, and cleaner form of heat. In general, the operating efficiency of an electric IR heater ranges from 40% to 70%, while that of gas‐fired IR heaters ranges from 30% to 50%
Quality and sensory changes by IR heating:
It is crucial and beneficial to investigate the quality and sensory changes occurring during IR heat treatment for commercial success. KERONE has studied the quality and sensory changes of food materials during IR heating after a detailed research. (Refer the R&D Reports to know more)
It was observed that application of Infrared Heating on food items results into a better product than applying convections heat. The food IR rays penetrate inside the food item thus destroying the inhabiting pathogens inside as well as on the surface of the food product without any change in the quality attributes of foods, such as vitamins, proteins, and antioxidant activities. The research suggested that 3 to 4 minute of infrared heat treatment was adequate for commercially acceptable products with the same nutrients and visibly healthier.
Conclusion:
IR heating is a unique process; however, presently, the application and understanding of IR heating in food processing is still in its infancy, unlike the electronics and allied sector where IR heating is a mature industrial technology. It is further evident from this review that IR heating offers many advantages over convection heating. IR heating is attractive primarily for surface heating applications. In order to achieve energy optimum and efficient practical applicability in the food processing industry, combination of IR heating with microwave and other common conductive and convective modes of heating holds great potential. It is quite likely that the utilization of IR heating in the food processing sector will augment in the near future, especially in the area of drying and minimal processing.
Why choose us?
Accuracy, efficiency, machine quality and output quality are not just words but our commitment towards our profession since last 42 years, creating a base of more than 1000 loyal customers. Our Industrial Heating Systems can be used as application for heating the food products all with a level of precision that manufacturers demand. We also provide detailed assistance without much hassle of complex functioning and installation of the machinery. We always strive to achieve more than client satisfaction with our timely delivery, quality and efficiency towards every machine manufactured by us.

Food Processing – The Ultimate Means to Combat Resident Micro organisms

Food processing means the ways that are used to change raw ingredients or agricultural produce into consumable food items for humans or animals. Food processing has been the age old customs since the nomadic ages in order to prevent & preserve food for devouring at later times. The advancement of technology has only improved the practice of food processing keeping the basic purpose of prevention and consumption intact. The food processing industry uses these processes.
Food Processing has 3 main stages, namely:

  1. Primary – necessary to make some foods edible. Eg: cooking vegetables
  2. Secondary – turning various ingredients into a food item. Eg: baking bread
  3. Tertiary – usually the processing of instant and fast foods, low in its nutrition level but devoured with relish

Basic Advantages of Food Processing:

  • Adds value to crops
  • Removal of inedible portions
  • Preservation for later consumption or sale to fetch better price
  • Is a major source of food in regular diet
  • Benefits a large groups of people, such as farmers, suppliers, vendors and of course the customers

India is the world’s second largest producer of food next to China, and has the potential of being the biggest with the food and agricultural sector. The total food production in India is likely to double in the next ten years and there is an opportunity for large investments in food and food processing technologies, skills and equipment, especially in areas of –

  • Canning
  • Dairy and Food Processing
  • Packaging
  • Frozen Food
  • Meat & Poultry
  • Fruits\Vegetables\Grains Processing
  • Packaged/Convenience Foods
  • Alcoholic Beverages & Soft Drinks
  • Thermo-Processing, etc. etc.

India produces nearly 16% of the world’s total food grain production. It is one of the largest producers of agricultural produce. With a population expected to reach to about 590 million people by 2030 in urban India, India has a huge potential domestic demand for processed foods other than the demand from the exports. There are many socio-economic factors that are driving the demand side of the Indian Food Processing Industry. The changing consumption patterns, rising income levels among the middle-class and changing lifestyles, are some of the factors providing the demand side push for the Food Processing Industry. Moreover, the central government has given a priority status to all agro-processing businesses. (Excerpt from ecoursesonline.iasri.res.in).

These figures substantiate the fact that the food processing industry is growing in an increasing rate. And so we at KERONE provide full assistance to our clients, being the producers of processed/ packaged food products to deliver their products with finesse and efficiency with our Food Processing/production lines & plants. We provide the following technical solutions:

  1. Infrared
  2. Microwave

Infrared food processing:
These food processing systems function by utilizing the infrared radiation from electromagnetic spectrum that penetrates through food and results in vibration and revolution of molecules. IR radiation are superior than the conventional heating techniques as the heat is generated at the surface of food material and transfer of heat fast and direct, no heating of surrounding air. The IR heating depends on.

  • Surface property of material
  • Type of radiation
  • Shape of emitter and receiver

Microwave Food Processing:
Microwave heating conduce to the reduction of come up time in the processing for food products and is insensitive to food heterogeneity. In addition, microwave heating is also effective to heat up the ready to eat food, retrieving its original form and nutrients. Pasteurization is the most widely used technology for killing pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in milk and fruit juices and other products. The MW heating depends on:

  • Surface property of material
  • Type of radiation
  • Shape of emitter and receiver

“One cannot think well, love well, sleep well, if one has not dined well.”
-Virginia Woolf

Why choose us?
Accuracy, efficiency, machine quality and output quality are not just words but our commitment towards our profession since last 42 years, creating a base of more than 1000 loyal customers. KERONE’s Processing lines are manufactured according to the client’s specified requirements. We also provide detailed assistance to avoid hassle of complex functioning of the machinery. We always strive to achieve more than just client satisfaction with our timely delivery, quality and efficiency towards every machine manufactured by us.