Sterilization of Food, Grains and Seeds

Food Grains are vital and essential dietary components, which help to get many nutrients including vitamins, minerals, protein, and carbohydrates required for survival and healthy life and growth of human body. Rice, Wheat, Maize, cowpea, millets, sorghum and lentils are some of the very popular grains consumed and adopted in day-to-day life for dietary need in major part of the world. Since the cultivation periods and locations are fixed and minimum and increasing population and increased demand of grains and foods now, has raised the concern of food cultivation and preservation now than that of before. For the food to be consumed post cultivation season and make it available to urban population the storage and transport has become critical.
Huge sum of grain, legumes and seeds are lost/ destroyed by insect attack in large part of the world, estimated around 30% (Hall, 1970) of the harvest. Developing countries are having more favorable environmental condition for increase of insect and pests breeding and spread, which make them more susceptible to loss of stored grains due to insects and pests. The insects and pests, deteriorates the weights, colors, nutrition levels, even make harmful if consumed. This contamination of foods, grains and seeds are increasing the food crisis in world.

To prevent foods, grains and seeds from contamination, it’s required more than recommended sterilizing and disinfesting the food grains before storage and transportation is initiated. Most common method of sterilizing and disinfesting are chemical coating, heating and cold treatment, or combination of these treatments.
Major reason of insect or pest attack is due to water contents within the grains, hence the heating (dry heat mechanism) has become the most widely accepted by major large scale storage and transportation authorities. The heat used to remove the water contents of microbes and subsequent oxidation.
In traditional dry heat is performed in a hot air sterilizer. This achieved by circulation the hot air in the metal or glass chamber. This has been very old and suppose to be very effective method of sterilization however many times it failed to deliver the desired result, this is because all the grains not coming in contact with hot air for desired time period hence equal amount of water reduction is not achieved.

KERONE in collaboration with EMITECH (Italy) has preformed various studies in the field of application of microwave for sterilization and disinfestations process, the microwave based heating system have delivered better result in very half of the time duration. Due to source heat generation property of microwave entire foods, grains or seeds undergone for processing achieves same level of treatment.
Application of Microwave has been very environment friendly and technically advanced process for sterilization and disinfestations suitable for all type of foods, grains and seeds by doing minor change in supply parameters.

For any query please feel free to contact or visit us at

Making Your Food More Tastier

Food coating is the process of applying outer surface of liquid or powder on core eatable substance either to enhance the taste or increase the life of food. Increasing demand of packed foods, producing new and innovative style of serving eatables such as cereals, candies, chicken, hams, snacks, Cheese, chocolates and many more to market has increased the demand of coated food. The food coating is primarily depends on two key factors number one is the coating ingredient (liquid or solid), and number two is machinery that used for the coating process. The coating machine or coating process mechanical setup is very crucial and have to be designed by keeping end product at front. The Food coating processing setup is performing various activities from applying coating ingredient in the desired manner, keeping food substance in motion (keeping the line or process running) and in final stage solidifying the coat on the eatable substance and make the handling process easy.

The coating process mainly comprise of following:

  1. Applicator: This section of coating machine applies the fine particle of the coating ingredients on the food product, the process of applying can be spraying, dipping, dropping and mixing.
  2. Equalization: This section of the coating processing machine tries to equalize, in simple words it tries to make the coating on the food as even as possible, by applying various techniques.
  3. Drying and/or Cooling: This section of complete process play very vital role in the life cycle of food coating process, the amount of heating and cooling is set to be one of the critical functions to harden the coated ingredient.

Coating systems are can be classified in two categories:

  • Continuous Coating System
  • Batch Coating System

Choice of appropriate coating system depends on the input food and ingredients in application, below are the criteria for selection:

  • Food substance: Shape, Size, Weight, surface area
  • Ingredient: Form Liquid or solid, viscosity, thickness, absorbing
  • Coating layer thickness required
  • Number of Coating cycle required
  • Drying, Cooling, Freezing required
  • Total capacity of machine
  • Rate of output

Few of the common application of the food coating process are as follows:

  • In Bakeries for coating of bread or doughnuts
  • Sugar candy coating
  • Snacks coating
  • Dry fruits coating
  • Chocolate coating
  • Cereal Coating
  • Dairy products coating Cheese, Butters and Etc
  • Chicken Coating with Egg batter
  • Nuggets
  • Prepared vegetable
  • Dragees
We at KERONE possessing experience of years and years in helping various industries with the need of coating systems, we have wide experience in providing technically advanced, quality rich engineering solutions . For any query write us at .

Making You Dose of Tablet Consumable- Table Coating

Tablets consist of active ingredients and excipients in the form of solid dosage. Now days we can find tablets in many varying shapes and sizes few are very attractive to but precise care is taken while manufacturing. Tablets are preferred worldwide due to its ease of consumption and carrying capacity.
Coating of tablet is done to achieve functional improvements like:

  • Improve the handling capacity
  • Make the tablet packing and transportation easy
  • Helps in improving life of tablet and maintaining the shape
  • Protects the ingredients and excipients
  • Control the release of drug in intestine

As per the book of Grahem Cole, John Hogan and Michael Aulton Title “Pharmaceutical Coating Technology” below are few more interesting reasons ‘Why Coating Tablet?’: The core contains a substance which imparts a bitter taste in the mouth or has an unpleasant odour.

  • The core contains a substance which is unstable in the presence of light and subject to atmospheric oxidation, i.e. a coating is added to improve stability.
  • The core is pharmaceutically inelegant.
  • The active substance is colored and migrates easily to stain patient’s clothes and hands.
  • The coated tablet is packed on a high-speed packaging unit. The coating reduces friction and increases the production rate.
  • To modify the drug release profile, e.g. enteric coating, sustained release coating, osmotic pumps, etc.
  • To separate incompatible substances by using the coat to contain one of them or to coat a pellet which was previously compressed into a core?

Tablet Coating is defined as a process by which an essentially layer is applied. The process of coating involves primarily 3 components or Stages: -

  1. Raw tables chemical property
  2. Solvent/Solution which will be on the Tablet
  3. Coating Equipment

There are 3 main type of coating processes:

  • Sugar coating:

The various sequential steps involved in sugar coating are:

  1. Sealing
  2. Subcoating
  3. Smoothing
  4. Colour Coating
  5. Polishing
  6. Printing
  • Film coating: 

A film coating is a thin polymer-based coat applied to a solid dosage form such as a tablet, granule or other particle. The thickness of such a coating is usually between 20 and 100 µm.
Film-coating formulations usually contain the following components:

  1. Polymer
  2. Plasticizer
  3. Pigment/opacifier
  4. Vehicle
  • Enteric coating:

The properties of enteric coating material are:

  1. Compatibility with most of the coating solutions
  2. Non toxicity.
  3. Low cost.
  4. Ease of application
  5. Formation of continuous film
  6. Resistant To gastric fluids.

We try taking up one by one technique in details in upcoming blogs, We at KERONE as involved in providing quality engineering solution to various pharmaceutical organization.

Understanding Coating and Techniques of coating!!!

A coating is a process in which layer of polymer or any material in liquid form used for depositing or covering the surface of the substrate. As per the Wikipedia the purpose of coating is decorative, functional or both. Decorative coating is done to achieve the aesthetic look and feel of material i.e. coating or painting on the fabrics with some artistic manner, on the other hand functional coating is applied achieve the adhesion, wetability, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, or water resistance.
The science of coating requires the understanding of the two phenomenon liquid flow and surface chemistry that deals with the solid to liquid relations. Study of viscosity and changed in the shape of liquid is very important in the process of coating.
Coatings are defined as mixtures of various materials. The materials are classified into four categories:

  • Resins
  • Pigments
  • Solvents
  • Additives

Techniques of the Coating:
Various coating techniques help in achieving the coating width of from thickness of some microns to mm, various coating techniques are as follows:

  • Gravure Coating Machine
  • Reverse Roll Coating Machine
  • Knife Over Roll Coating Machine
  • Air Knife coating
  • Metering Rod (Mayer Rod) Coating Machine
  • Slot Die Coating Machine
  • Curtain Coating Machine
  • Immersion/Dip Coating Machine
  • Hot melt Coating Machine
  • Web Coating Systems
  • Fabric Coating Machine

You can ask the experts such as KERONE those are pioneer in manufacturing and designing of various type of the coating machines and plants. We can be reached at .

Understanding Concept and Application of Heat Exchangers

In this article let’s try to understand that, what is the heat exchanger and why to consider it, the former definition of that says it is a device that channelizes the heat from one medium to other medium, either by direct contact or by means of the induction.
Virtually all major industrial processes such as heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power plants, chemical processing plant , plastic, rubber, pharmaceutical, petroleum refineries, natural gas processing, and sewage treatment finds the application of the heat exchanger some or the other way. The efficiency and the rate of the transfer of the thermal energy of heat exchanger plays very critical role in the performance of the heating, drying and cooling.
The heat exchangers are generally of three basic classifications based on the heat flow

  • Parallel flow: where the fluids runs in same direction, parallel to each other.
  • Counter flow: where the fluid runs in opposite direction. 
  • Cross flow: where the fluids travel perpendicular to each other. 

Heat exchangers are also classified based on the construction:

  • Shell and tube heat exchanger
  • Plate heat exchanger
  • Plate and shell heat exchanger
  • Fluid heat exchangers
  • Plate fin heat exchanger 
  • Regenerative Heat Exchanger

Transfer of the heat for the diverse applications such as water to water, air to water, water to air, and air to air.
Heat exchanger avoids the direct contact hence high temperatures can not cause overheating but they could potentially start a fire in a unit if the temperature remains too hot for a period of time. Heat exchanges are used in a diverseness of industries such as home appliances, heating and cooling, marine and boating, ventilation and air flow, industrial manufacturing and many more. So many of the items that we use every day contain a heat exchanger in them and we never really think about the role that they play in these pieces.
You can ask the experts such as KERONE those are pioneer in manufacturing and designing of heat exchanger they will tell you how much this is important and what it exactly does when designed properly and consequences if not properly designed and taken care. We can be reached at .


Paper Coating Machine

The paper and paper products plays more substantial role in the day-to-day life of the human, its usage are increasing every day in as newspapers, magazines, envelopes, books & diaries, stationeries, packaging and etc. the usage of paper and paper related products have become nearly unlimited. The increasing application has increased the demand of quality paper, majorly the paper quality is defined in terms of its smoothness, glossy finish, printability, uniform thickness and moisture contain.
The increasing demand of the paper the manufacturers wanted to have the paper manufacturing machines to produce higher quality paper, increase productivity, reduction in the waste, safe and improved process control. The paper manufacturing and paper coating process is known as one of the major dewatering process, which requires removal of all even a small amount of water also by the way of evaporation for the quality paper and coatings. The paper machine consist of the four sections Forming Section, Press Section, Drying Section, Calender Section. Wikipedia explains the sections as follows:

  • Forming section, commonly called the wet end, is where the slurry of fibres filters out fluid a continuous fabric loop to form a wet web of fibre.
  • Press section where the wet fibre web passes between large rolls loaded under high pressure to squeeze out as much water as possible.
  • Drying section, where the pressed sheet passes partly around, in a serpentine manner, a series of steam heated drying cylinders. Drying removes the water content down to a level of about 6%, where it will remain at typical indoor atmospheric conditions.
  • Calender section where the dried paper is smoothened under high loading and pressure. Only one nip (where the sheet is pressed between two rolls) is necessary in order to hold the sheet, which shrinks through the drying section and is held in tension between the press section (or breaker stack if used) and the calender. Extra nips give more smoothing but at some expense to paper strength.

The most critical part of the paper making process is drying the paper post press section to leave around 6% of the moisture contain within paper, hence the selection of the dryer and drying technology plays very vital role in total paper production system. In the dryer section, the paper entanglement passes over rotating; a cast iron cylinder which was heated by the means of heat transfer mechanism such as Convention, Conduction and/or Radiation and the most of the remaining water is removed by evaporation. When the paper leaves the dryer section its solid content has increased to about 90-95%. Thermal energy transferred from the heater is used for the dewatering of the paper in the dryer section.
Since the drying is critical in the entire paper production process as overlooking its criticality by the paper manufactures and/or plant operators may results in improper paper quality of paper, increased waste and reduced production. Hence the choice of the drying technology and dryers needs to be done properly by consulting with the leaders in the field of heater and heating technologies such as KERONE.
KERONE has been serving the paper and other manufacturing processes with its quality and technically superior innovative product quality since last 40 years. We at KERONE is have team of experts to help you with the your need of heating system from our wide experience. For any query write us at .

Why and How to temper a Glass

From last decade we have seen increase in the usage of the Glass in various sectors such as façade of big corporate houses or residential buildings in real estate, home & office interior and decorative, crockery items, water bottles, in Automobile industry, and in last few years the use of small tempered glasses as protective screen guards for the mobile and other electronics systems especially in India and Asian countries. This increased usage of glass with greater human surrounding requires two important things first it should not break easily; second even if it broke it should not harm anyone in any sense.
Now the question is why and how to achieve the above mentioned requirements, the desired requirements are achieved by the way of heat treatment on the glass. This process of heat treatment is known as the Tempering; in tempering the glass is heated in the tempering oven of batch or continuous type, the glass is heated to its softening point of temperature of around 564 degree Celsius to 620 degree Celsius once the desired temperature is achieved the glass is cooled rapidly under high-pressure in few seconds is called “quenching”. This give the glass edges strengths and increases the breaking strength and safety, the properly tempered glass has strength to resist pressure and impact of up to 100, 00 psi to 240, 00 psi and when tempered glass breaks it breaks into relatively small and harmless fragments.
Characteristics of the Tempered Glass:

  • Tempered Glass can endure 4 to 5 time’s greater pressure than the annealed glass with physical property.
  • Thermal strength of the tempered glass is much higher.
  • Tempered glass breaks in small harmless fragments and does not results into sharp edges of the fragments, hence can be denoted as safety glass.
  • The basic property of the glass is maintained such as light transmission, radiating solar energy.
  • No cutting or shape change is possible once the glass is annealed.

We at KERONE have experience of 40 years in helping the industries with their heating needs, as to make the glass more usable the tempering is required and we have right solutions that fits the heating needs of the tempering process, we at KERONE is have team of experts to help you with the your need of heaters from our wide experience.For any query write us at .


Understanding the Concept and Importance of the Annealing

After selective heating which was the heat treatment for specific application only we are trying to trough some light on the Annealing heat treatment process. In Annealing the material under the processing is heated to particular temperature, the desired temperature is held for the defined time duration, and afterwards allowed to cool at steady rate of cooling. Annealing process is sensitive to temperature and time, depending upon the material the choice of the temperature and time is required.
Process of annealing:
The first step of the annealing is to heat the material under the processing, the temperature is raised slowly at steady rate of rise of temperature this is done achieve the equal state of the expansion with caution that the molecules should not change their state from solid to viscous liquid. The second step is to hold the temperature for the few minutes, hours to days depending upon the material so that all the molecules release their stress and pressure. The third and very important step is cooling the rate of the cooling is very critical and should be controlled accordingly to avoid 1) the creation of various temperature spotting (variation in the temperature due to complex shape or thickness of material) 2) achieve proper molecules reformation to achieve the desired flexibility and agility in the material.
Variants of the Annealing:
Below are the some variants of the annealing process:

  • Full Annealing/Conventional Annealing
  • Isothermal Annealing
  • Spheroidise Annealing
  • Re-Crystallization Annealing
  • Stabilisation Annealing
  • Stress Relief Annealing

*Variants of the annealing we will try explaining in the upcoming blogs.
Benefits of the Annealing:
Annealing heat treatment is done across several industries on various types of materials such as metals (steel, Iron etc), Glass, Plastic and Etc. to achieve following benefits of the process:

  • Reduces the inner stress 
  • Increases Ductility 
  • Increases the toughness
  • Improves the homogeneity
  • Improves the agility 
  • Improves the material structure 
  • Reduces the hardness and brittleness 
  • Improves the magnetic property 
  • Improves the appearance of the material 

We at KERONE have experience of 40 years in helping the industries with their heating needs, as the annealing is very important heat treatment and selection of the proper heating system is very critical, we at KERONE is have team of experts to help you with the your need of annealing heating system from our wide experience. For any query write us at .

Microwave Heating for the Food Processing

Microwave heating SystemsThe changing lifestyle, busy life and increase disposable income has raised the demand packaged ready to cook/eat food product, the demand and increasing consumption rate of the such foods for daily nutritional need had forced the food processing companies/units to produce high quality packaged foods with greater quantity, also maintaining the nutritional level of the food at the same time due to strict governing authorities.

The traditional heating systems were unable to deliver the   desired result in the stipulated time hence the food industries and their technology partners have started using the electromagnetic based heating systems, amongst the popular electromagnetic heating systems such as IR, RF and Microwave, the microwave type of heating systems have gain popularity.

The microwave heating has increased the production rate by reducing the cooking time; also the quality of microwave processed is good. The success point of the microwave was its ability to penetrate within the food product and result in heating from inner to outer surface; this made the microwave heating as ideal for the cooking, baking, thawing and etc. The food products processed in microwave usually evening cooked/heated.

Even though the microwave heating was proving it advantages but before using the it for the actual production the 2 major factors those were challenging, first one was the adaptability within the current system as replacing complete manufacturing facility were never feasible and economical and second was impact of the microwave electromagnetic waves on the materials under processing as it should not change the molecular property of the food processed and turn it the toxic or harm the mankind on consumption in any means. But due to it electromagnetic wavelength it only collides with the  molecules with in food and energizes them as soon as molecules get excited the total electromagnetic radiation is changed in the form of heat, hence it can never make food radioactive or contaminate. As the Microwaves utilizes low frequency electromagnetic energy (frequency range round 300-3000 Mhz), it never breaks the compound bonds. Thus, there is not any substantiated proof it causes undue chemical reaction that can happen in food and making it poisons or radioactive that can harm human health when consumed.

The application of microwave heating system provides beneficial approaches to defrost, cook or reheat foods. Numerous studies have been led to survey the security and conceivable supplement misfortune connected with microwave cooking. The best accessible confirmation upholds that the utilization of microwave cooking brought about foods with well being and supplement quality like those cooked by ordinary systems.

We at KERONE having 40 years experience in providing various type of heating solutions to processing industries, mainly customized, made best quality material and technically advanced heating system. We are having expertise in designing and manufacturing infrared heater, microwave heater , Radio frequency (RF) heaters and conventional heaters. For any query please feel free to contact .

Understanding the Selective or Differential Heat Treatment

To have harden the metal and provide it the degree of the toughness and strength, the heat treatment if the metal is required, the heat treatment helps the metal to achieve the desired level strength by changing the micro-structure of the metal. Heating the metal to desired temperature and then cooling same a different rate of cooling help in material to release it pressure and help in achieving the desires softness and toughness.
Making of strong blades such as sword, knife and many industrial cutting blades require different amount of toughness (martensite) and softness. The martensite is achieved by heating the metal to certain temperature and then cooling by the means of immersing the hot metal in oil or water, this rapid change of the heat changes does not allow the carbon atoms to diffuse out of the crystal structure in large enough quantities. When the same material is heated to the desired temperature and then allowed to cool in open air, this cooling rate helps the material desired strength and flexibility.
Hence for making the swords, blades and knifes the differential heat treatment technique is used, because such blades require the desired toughness (Harden) with the strengths to handle the pressure while in application. The differential or selective heat treatment can be achieved by two ways; first by applying the same amount of heat the entire metal and later cooling down the desired areas at different rate. Second applying the different amount of heat at different part of the metal and the allow cooling accordingly. Differential heat treatment can also be achieved by the quenching the complete metal and the tempering only selected area.
We at KERONE has experience of years in helping the industries with their heating needs, we have wide experience in metal heat treatment. For any query write us at .