Microwave Heating Systems for Sintering of Ceramics

Processing of ceramic materials has also a strong impact in the quality of the consolidated body, as it plays a key role in the resulting microstructure and, as a consequence, in its final properties. Advanced ceramic materials are commonly processed as powders and densified via a high-temperature process. Traditional processing techniques include hot isostatic pressing, mold casting, and sintering in conventional ovens. As ceramics require very high processing temperatures compared to metals and polymers, these processes tend to be very energy intensive and result in higher production costs to the manufacturers. Therefore, new technologies known as nonconventional sintering techniques, such as microwave technology, are being developed in order to reduce energy consumption, while maintaining or even improving the characteristics of the resulting ceramic material. This novel and innovative technology aims at helping industrial sectors lower their production costs and, at the same time, lessen their environmental impact. On the other hand, it is interesting and necessary to know and explore the basic principles of microwaves to advance in the development of materials that demand, every day more, the different industrial sectors.

High-temperature processes are required to consolidate ceramic powders, such as zirconia, alumina, silicon carbide, and so on, in order to obtain full densification of the material. Sintering is a common material processing technique aimed at fulfilling this task. The fundamental principle behind sintering consists in the thermal activation of mass transfer mechanisms when exposing a powder compact, known as a “green” body, to a high-temperature process, at a dwell temperature below the melting point of the material. The main purpose of sintering is to obtain a dense and resistant body with properties as close as possible to those of a theoretical, fully dense solid. However, in some cases, sintering can also be employed to adjust some of the properties based on the performance requirements of the material by not reaching full consolidation, such as in porous materials.

Two main types of sintering can be identified based on the nature of the process: liquid phase and solid phase. Even though the term liquid phase may suggest exceeding the melting point of the material, it is used to describe the addition of compounds with significantly lower melting points that aid in the consolidation of the main powder, which is regarded as the matrix phase and provides the main properties of the consolidated body.

The most important advantages of microwave sintering against conventional sintering methods are listed as follows:

  • Shorter sintering time and lower energy consumption;
  • Higher heating rates can be used.
  • Materials with a finer (Nano metric) microstructure with a high degree of densification and enhanced mechanical properties may be obtained due to the densification mechanisms involved;
  • Flexible due to the possibility of processing near-net-shape materials.

Microwaves have been used since the 1960s for heating purposes, particularly for food- and water-based products. Industrially, the use of microwave energy has become increasingly important because it represents an alternative to traditional with high-temperature processes. For example, so far, it has been employed in wood drying, resin curing, and polymer synthesis. The growing interest in industrial microwave heating is due mostly to the reduction of production costs resulting from lower energy consumption and shorter processing times.

Microwave sintering is considered a relatively new ceramic material processing technique that differs significantly from conventional sintering methods due to the nature of the heat transfer mechanisms involved. Hence, microwave sintering is classified as a non-conventional sintering technique. This method presents itself as a fast, economical, and flexible processing tool. Some of the most important advantages against conventional sintering systems include lower energy consumption and production costs, reduction of processing times, higher heating rates, and, in some cases, even an improvement in the physical properties of the consolidated material

In a general sense, microwave sintering increases the densification of the material at lower dwell temperatures when compared to conventional sintering, employing shorter times and less energy, and resulting in an improvement of the microstructure and mechanical properties.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for Microwave heating systems for Sintering of Ceramics in various products range from our wide experience.

Drying Evaluation of Green Coconut Pulp

The world production of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) was about 60 million tons in 2008 [1] — 85% in Asia, 8.5% in America, 2.9% in Africa and 3.2% in Oceania. Some of the coconut-based products are coconut oil, coconut water, copra and shredded coconut. Coconut products can also be found in beverages, cosmetic and toiletries products. The fresh or industrialized coconut water is much appreciated as a natural isotonic in Brazil. Its demand reaches 1.4% of soft drink market. A serious environmental problem has come up due to the inappropriate disposal of the husks. It is estimated that 350 million liters of green coconut water are consumed in Brazil every year and this consumption produces approximately 2 million tons of green coconut husk. 70% of the waste generated in Brazilian coastal urban centers is green coconut husk.

Green coconut husk is an excellent bio-material for the adsorption of Indigo Blue from textile industries. Other studies showed that the young pulp, in its very early maturation stage, presents interesting properties to be used as ingredient in ice cream, bread and cake.

Drying is another possibility to preserve the pulp that is discarded inside the husk. There are studies of drying coconut pulp in a CD and in a conventional fluidized bed. The low efficiency of CD and the lack of uniformity of the material, which favors channeling and agglomeration under conventional fluidization, led to the innovative-pulsed fluidization technique. Product quality was evaluated by Aw, enzymatic activity, color (parameter L), moisture content and texture analyses and the results were related to the process variables. Mathematical modeling of drying curves was done too.

Material and Methods :

Cabinet drying and pulsed fluid bed drying were performed to determine drying curves at 60, 70 and 80 °C. The initial and final Aw, moisture content and product luminosity, along with the visual aspect, were the parameters used to choose the best drying conditions. After the temperature was established, the variation of luminosity, enzymatic activity, Aw and texture were determined throughout the drying process.

Extraction of coconut pulp :

The green coconut used in this work was the Nana Griff kind (Dwarf Coconut Palm), grown in the Brazilian Northeast. Coconuts were sanitized with NaClO, and coconut water was drained. The husks were cut to have the pulp extracted. The pulp was then vacuum packed, frozen and kept at -20 °C until use. The analyses were performed at least in triplicate.

Sampling :

Due to the lack of product homogeneity, the samples for the analyses were obtained by fragmentation of various pieces of pulp, thus compensating for heterogeneity.

Moisture Content :

The moisture content was determined as described in A.O.A.C.

Luminosity :

The color analyses were performed using the colorimeter COLOR EYE XTH calibrated with 10 degrees of observation angle. The parameter used was the luminosity (L*). Browning of the material was inferred by the decrease in luminosity.

Fat Content :

Coconut pulp samples were ground in mixer, dehydrated and the fat content was determined by A.O.A.C.

Enzymatic Activity :

10 g of pulp were homogenized with 100 mL of 5% polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) suspension. The homogenate was centrifuged at 1600×g for 15 minutes at 4 °C centrifuge. Polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities were determined by spectrophotometric method using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer (Varian Cary 100). The PPO activity unit was defined as an increase of 0.001 min-1‡ ǻ$420 min-1‡ (ml sample) -1, using catechol as substrate. One POD activity unit was defined as the amount of enzyme capable of producing the conversion of 1 mmol of guaiacol per second under the test conditions.

Water Activity :

Water activity was measured by a hygrometer at 25 °C

Texture Analyses :

A Texture Analyzer with a 5-mm stainless steel cylindrical probe, in a load cell of 25 kg was used. A sample was placed on a hollow planar base and the force was applied by the probe at the constant speed of 1.0 mm.s-1 and 3 mm of penetration. Force deformation data were recorded. The maximum force and the number of peaks indicated the crispness.

Cabinet Dryer (CD) :

Cabinet Dryer was manufactured by Armfield, UK (Figure 1). It consists of a 28 cm × 28 cm square duct and a fan (a) with adjustable speed, which blows the air through electric resistances (b), controlled by a PID device. A 5.0 × 102 g layer of material was spread over the surfaces of two 20 cm × 20 cm trays in the chamber. The trays were held by an analytical scale (c) enabling mass measuring during drying. Air velocity was 2.1 m-s -1 in all tests.

Pulsed Fluid Bed Dryer (PFB) :

The gas distribution system is the distinctive feature of the PFB equipment. In the experimental set-up used in this work, the distribution of airflow is provided by two disks installed upstream of the drying chamber, on opposite sides of the gas distribution chamber. These disks are synchronized for they share a common shaft.

In case of high production yield, the recommended equipment is PFB dryer because it has great productivity by allowing the drying of large amounts of green coconut pulp. The results showed that the dehydration is a good way to make the green coconut pulp useful, increasing its shelf life and providing a snack-like product.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for Drying in various products range from our wide experience.

Combined treatments of blanching and dehydration

The blanching method is utilized to scald vegetables in boiling water or steam for a particular quantity of your time. It stops enzyme actions which may cause a loss of flavor, color, and texture once the food is frozen or dehydrated.

It’s also called parboiling.

Blanching helps to rid of the surface of food from dirt and organisms, it brightens the color and helps retain vitamins. Some vegetables are extremely fibrous and taking the time to blanch them wilts, or softens them, in order that they can dry quicker or be easier to package for freezing.

Blanching time is crucial and varies with the vegetable and size. Under-blanching vegetables will stimulate their enzymes and is worse than no blanching.

When water blanching, be careful and use the suggested times. Overdoing the blanching time can cause loss of flavor, color, vitamins, and minerals; therefore you’ll primarily transfer all the nutrients from the food to the boiling water.

These vegetables can continuously need blanching. you should only use vegetables that are in wonderful condition. With larger vegetables, prepare to the size you wish first, and then blanch.

Once you’ve completed the blanching method (including the ice water bath), food can be stored within the deep freezer or processed in a dehydrator.


To make blanching easy, consider creating a blanching station to make the process go a bit faster. Begin by making an assembly line from your stovetop to your sink.


Heating in steam is an alternate to water bath blanching and is even suggested for a couple of vegetables. Try this technique for broccoli, pumpkin, sweet potatoes, and winter squash, which is able to help them, keep their texture higher. Steam blanching isn’t faster than boiling water blanching, in fact, takes regarding 1½ times longer to urge the vegetables to the proper state.


Microwave blanching might not be effective since research shows that some enzymes might not be inactivated. This might lead to off-flavors and loss of texture and color with the finished product. On the opposite hand, there seems to be some vitamin retention once using this technique, since microwaving doesn’t fully submerge the food into boiling water which may take away a part of the nutrients.

If you want to try the microwave blanching method, be sure to work in small batches and use the directions for your specific microwave oven. Microwave blanching will not save your time or use less energy.

While blanching, a few nutrients are lost into the water. But don’t waste it! You can still use that water in other ways!

  • Cook rice, couscous, or quinoa;
  • Use as the beginning of a stock or soup base;
  • Use as the water in any recipe;
  • Water plants or garden after it has cooled.

In some cases, blanching will really help with thick skinned berries by breaking the skins to make dehydrating a bit quicker. Whereas you can also freeze or cut, blanching is a good way to do it for a large amount.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for Combined treatments of blanching and dehydration in various products range from our wide experience.

Applications of sand roasting and baking in the preparation of snacks

In India, the sand roasting technique is widely used by street food vendors, villagers and cottage industries for making various value-added food products from different cereals, millets and legumes. The traditionally produced sand-roasted products are commonly utilized as ready to eat snacks or for the preparation of various other snacks.

The techniques of sand roasting and baking are gaining importance as cheap, effective, oil-free, healthier ways of cooking. However, further studies are needed on micronutrient availability and functional food development for community nutritional disorders. Also, the residual silica levels and difficult working environment mandates the development of energy-efficient and high-output-orientated technologies such as continuous, microwave, and fluidized bed roasters.

In terms of health benefits, minimally processed foods are better than the processed foods. Among the minimal processes, sand roasting is a traditional, rapid food processing method which utilizes dry heat for a shorter span of time. In this high-temperature short-time treatment, the heat energy is transferred via conduction. The sand roasting causes faster dehydration, characteristic thermal and chemical reactions, and reduction in water activity of the grains. During roasting, the far infrared rays produced from the sand penetrate the grains and aid in breaking down of the starch, protein, and fats in the grains.

The cereals belong to the family Graminaceae and include rice, wheat, maize, barley, oat, and rye. They are the important carbohydrate resources, in addition to minerals, dietary fiber, and bioactive compounds. The different methods such as conventional dry heating, sand roasting, hot-air popping, gun puffing, microwave heating are used for producing value-added cereals with distinctive aroma and taste.

Sand Roasting of Rice

Among the cereal crops, rice occupies a key position as a major cereal crop and staple food in human nutrition due to its texture, taste, and nutritional qualities. There are vast number of paddy varieties grown in different states of India which are suited for raw milling, parboiling, and value-added rice products. In India, around 10% of the production is used for making value-added rice products such as popped, puffed, and flaked rice.

Popped Rice

It is known as pelalu, khoi, etc. in various Indian languages. It is a traditional value-added product with high cold water swelling capacity originated from raw paddy; arising from high starch gelatinization and low retro gradation. It is prepared directly by high-temperature short-time treatment from the moisture-adjusted raw paddy by sand roasting in a pan at a temperature of 150–250 °C for 25–45 s.

Puffed Rice

It is known as maramaralu, murmura, murra, muri, puri, borugulu, mandakki, kallepuri, etc. in various Indian languages. It is one of the popular, common, oldest minimally processed food items especially used as snack, ready to eat breakfast cereal, infant food, etc. in India. It is also distributed as prasadam to devotees in temples and gurudwaras. It is mostly produced in home or cottage industries by skilled artisans using the cheaply available local material, sand as a heat transfer medium for the uniform distribution of temperature among the grains.

Flaked Rice

It is also known as rice flakes, parched rice, flattened rice, and beaten rice in English and atukuluavalakki, aval, pohachura, chira, chiwada, etc. in various Indian languages. It is one of the oldest traditional rice product which is consumed as a cereal breakfast and sweet or salty snack either by toasting, roasting, frying, spicing, or soaking in water, milk, and seasoning with vegetables and spices in India. It is a flattened, carbohydrate rich, edible, precooked, rice product produced by soaking the paddy, sand roasting, and flattening.

Sand Roasting of Maize

Popcorn is the most important, popular commercial snack produced worldwide from corn. It is available in small packs, coated with various ingredients such as hydrogenated oil, sugar syrup, salt, β-carotene, favors, etc. for improving the sensory quality. There are various corn-popping methods are available including conventional sand roasting, gun popping, hot-air popping, and microwave popping. Among which, the microwave and pressure cooker popping are the most popular methods at households due to energy-efficiency and short time. The popping of maize depends on corn variety; kernel size, shape, and density; pericarp thickness; moisture content (11-16%); popping temperature; and popping method.

There are many more products and different types of sand roasting techniques:

  • Sand roasting of barley
  • Sand roasting of oats and wheat
  • Sand roasting of millets
  • Sand roasting of groundnut fruits and seed kernels
  • Sand roasting of chickpea, cowpea, pea, black gram, and kidney beans
  • Sand roasting of other food items
  • Sand baking of vegetables, eggs, meat, and cake

The limitations of the sand roasting technique are lack of temperature control, uneven temperature distribution and sand contamination in the final products. The sand roasting method is energy inefficient, tedious, manual in operation involving continuous hand stirring, sometimes unhygienic, and limited by low output. The workers are prone to direct influence of heat, flame, and smoke originated from the commonly used fuels such as crop and agro-industrial residues, wood, charcoal, kerosene, and gas. Thus, the current traditional and industrial sand roasting method necessitates the development an alternate technology for production of value-added cereal and legume food products which is low-cost, energy-efficient, effective, high-output-orientated with no exposure of the food products to impurities. For example, continuous, microwave, and fluidized bed roasters save cost, reduces the manual labor, enhances productivity, and maintains uniformity in roasted products. In addition to consumer satisfaction, it also provides temperature range optimization, even heat distribution within the heating chamber and food grains and applicability to wide range of materials.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for roasting & baking in various products range from our wide experience.

A Model-Based Methodology for Spray-Drying Process Development

Solid amorphous dispersions are frequently used to improve the solubility and, thus, the bioavailability of poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Spray-drying, a well-characterized pharmaceutical unit operation is ideally suited to producing solid amorphous dispersions due to its rapid drying kinetics. This paper describes a novel flowchart methodology based on fundamental engineering models and state-of-the-art process characterization techniques that ensure that spray-drying process development and scale-up are efficient and require minimal time and API. This methodology offers substantive advantages over traditional process-development methods, which are often empirical and require large quantities of API and long development times. The methodology is used from early formulation-screening activities (involving milligrams of API) through process development and scale-up for early clinical supplies (involving kilograms of API) to commercial manufacturing (involving metric tons of API). It has been used to progress numerous spray-dried dispersion formulations, increasing bioavailability of formulations at preclinical through commercial scales.

Spray-drying is a widely used unit operation for pharmaceutical applications. In addition to its use in preparing solid amorphous spray-dried dispersions (SDDs), spray-drying is used in excipient manufacture, pulmonary and bio therapeutic particle engineering, the drying of crystalline active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), and encapsulation.

In common practice, spray-drying process development is often empirical and is experimentally driven. Traditional methods often use an iterative design of experiments (DOE) or statistical treatment of the process parameters and resulting product attributes. This is often a time-intensive exercise, requiring large quantities of API, and the resulting process is often not well understood or sufficiently robust.

The spray-drying process is a well-established unit operation in the pharmaceutical industry. To manufacture an SDD, a spray solution—which consists of API and polymer dissolved in a common solvent—is delivered to an atomizer inside a spray-drying chamber concurrently with a hot drying gas. Organic solvents are typically used to produce SDDs because the API tends to be poorly water-soluble. Nitrogen drying gas is employed to provide an inert processing atmosphere when processing organic solvents. The spray solution is atomized into droplets using a spray nozzle. Many different types of spray nozzles can be used including two-fluid, ultrasonic, rotary, and pressure (or hydraulic) nozzles. Pressure nozzles are often preferred due to their simplicity, scalability, and ease of droplet-size tuning. When the spray-solution droplets contact the hot drying gas, the solvent in the droplets evaporates, leaving dried SDD particles entrained in the drying gas that exits the drying chamber. These particles are collected and then separated from the gas stream, usually by a cyclone separator.

Based upon an evaluation of the physicochemical properties of the API, several initial formulations (generally, two to four) are selected and screened in this step. A screening-scale spray dryer designed for maximizing yields from SDD batches of <100 mg is used. This dryer is not designed to replicate optimized bulk powder properties (e.g., particle size, density) of larger-scale spray dryers, but rather is used to match physicochemical properties for fast, efficient formulation-screening studies. Analogous to the process-development flowchart methodology, a formulation selection flowchart, comprising predictive physical-stability models, rapid chemical-stability screens, and bio relevant in vitro performance tests is key to selecting a lead SDD polymer and drug-to-polymer ratio. For the sake of brevity, these will not be addressed in this paper.

After a robust formulation has been identified, equipment-related and formulation-related process constraints are identified, resulting in definition of the drying-gas flow rate (M gas) and drying-gas inlet temperature (T in).

The thermodynamic operating space described above defines the process based upon near-equilibrium assumptions and does not account for kinetic limitations such as the drying of large droplets or increased drying resistance due to film formation at the droplet surface. Drying kinetics of single droplets can be studied experimentally, but the information provided—while useful—does not account for the actual conditions in the spray dryer such as droplet velocity and momentum exchange between the droplets and the drying gas.

Many aspects of this approach can be directly translated to other atomization/evaporative processes, such tablet-coating and fluid-bed processes. A similar strategy can also be applied to many other pharmaceutical-processing unit operations.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for spray drying in various products range from our wide experience.

Rice and Paddy Processing Plant & Equipment

Kerone has been familiar with the development of rice mills/plants from last 47 years. We are the right partner from a mill with an hourly capability of 2,000 kilogram to the totally automated giant mill. Our clients can avail from us an excellent range of Rice Processing Plant, which is made using latest technology. Widely used for making finest quality rice, these plants are easily installable and thus deliver best results. These plans are highly appreciated for their features like reliable operations and less maintenance. We at Kerone Design and Manufacture Customized Rice Mills/Plants in many specifications.

Rice is the world’s largest food crop and in many countries of the world rice is the most important staple food. Due to the constantly growing world population the demand for rice continues to increase. It has become necessary to meet the demand of the world’s current population growth rate, and the least costly means for achieving this aim is to increase rice productivity, wherever possible.

Features of complete rice mill production plant

  • Fully automatic complete rice mill production plant, less power consumption.
  • Simple operation, the whole operation can be operated by only one person.
  • Paddy rice mill processing plant starts with innovative design and highly efficient transmission technology that provide unbeatable milling performance with a minimum of complexity.
  • Matched a polishing machine; users can flexibly polish white rice for different rice, reduce the broken rice rate of finished rice and satisfy different rice polishing process requirements.
  • The processed rice can be bagged directly to reduce labor intensity.
  • We are complete rice mill processing plant manufacturer which have rich experiences of building the rice processing plant at abroad successfully, and received high reputation from our customers for good quality, best price as well as professional technical support.

Our technology covers the complete range of rice and paddy handling – from pre-cleaning, paddy storage, dryers, hullers, polishers, rice whiteners, optical sorters to bagging.

But we provide far more than machines. We’ve got groups of food scientists, who will facilitate with consumer trends and recipes. Our digital services will help speed up your method, or use our consultancy to enhance efficiency, food safety or energy savings. We work with every type of rice plants

Guide to Understanding the Baghouse Filter Bags

Since the Clean Air Act in the 1970s, the utilization of fabric filter baghouses for both process and nuisance dust collection has experienced a 16% compound growth rate worldwide. Growth rates have leveled in the U.S., but maintained themselves in emerging countries. Government and social mandates have brought requirements for larger and more sophisticated baghouse cleaning designs, and more advanced fabric filter bag designs and filter media for use in baghouse filtration.

Common Names for Dry Fabric Filter Bags

Since there are so many different industries that utilize dust collection, filter bags adopt many different names. Sometimes what a filter is referred to can be dependent on the application it is used for or the material it is made out of. The following are a list of names; some you may have heard of and others you may not have. Getting to know this list can instantly help when trying to troubleshoot a dust collector with a co-worker or service provider.

  • Reverse Air Bags
  • Filter Bags
  • Filter Socks
  • Filter Media Bags
  • Tubular Bags
  • Dust Bags
  • Felted Bags
  • Woven Bags
  • Fiberglass Bags
  • Envelop Bags
  • Cartridges
  • Pleated Elements
  • Fabric Filter Bags
  • APC Filter Bags
  • Baghouse Filter Bags
  • Pulse-Jet Bags
  • Shaker Bags

Dry fabric filters, more commonly known as baghouse filters, are used to remove dust from the air by capturing air borne dust(s) suspended in the air. The air is directed using either vacuum suction or pressure into a series of ducts, which run horizontally and vertically from pick-up points at single and multiple plant process and nuisance dusting areas. The dust-laden air is sucked into a main gathering duct trunk line terminating at the air inlet of a baghouse fabric filter.

The baghouse itself is a large housing sometimes designed with multiple chambers. Dust collectors are designed to capture the dust and thus filter the air from particulate laden (dirty air) turning the dirty air into clean air; virtually particle free. Once the air is cleaned, it’s exhausted from the collector’s clean air side back into the atmosphere. Dirty solid particles are captured on the filter bags surface, while the gases being filtered pass through the filter bags media. This bag media is called “filter media” and will be discussed later.

Baghouses can automatically clean the filtered particles off of the filter media based on a periodic need to clean the filter bags media. This is called regenerating the filter bag medias permeability, which removes enough compacted dust cake to allow air to flow again at a low (<6” W.G. static loss) restriction (static loss) across the filter media. The system depends on a Fan or Blower to either pressure (push) or vacuum (suck) the air across the filter bags’ media. This means the filter bags media has a dirty side and a clean side. The dirty side intercepts, filters, and compacts the dirty air stream gases, while the clean side has contact with clean air stream gas as it passes through the media.

Characteristics of Filtration Fibers

  • Acrylic Fibers
  • Aromatic Polyamide (Nomex)
  • Polyester (PE)
  • Polypropylene (PP)
  • P84 (Polyimide)
  • Teflon
  • Glass
  • Ryton (Polyphenylene Sulfide)

As a baghouse OEM, one of the most important Baghouse Equipment design criteria considerations is the proper selection of both the bag’s filter media and the bag’s size / tailoring. To select a proper bag filter media as a baghouse OEM and as baghouse owner in the market to purchase bag replacements, you need to determine the following information:

  • Compare baghouse application / process to filter media application selection chart by temperature and chemical resistance.
  • Evaluate previous job dust handling experience to select suitable internal can and interstitial velocity ranges.
  • Once internal velocities ranges are agreed upon, then final air to cloth ratio and filter bag length can be calculated.
  • Filtration efficiency selection in terms of outlet dust emission requirements to meet air permit is revisited based on actual internal velocities, air to cloth ratio, and bag length. This final analysis and review is used to determine if special media surface treatments or PTFE membrane is required to insure success in meeting filtration efficiency and maintaining a DP range of between 2.5” WC to 4.5” WC.
  • Determine special application design requirements for ground wire, bottom wear guards, and special sewing / needle hole close-offs. At this point in your developing final filter bag selection and specifications you will have determined the following bag design criteria:
  • Next, here are some helpful tips to ensure you receive the filter bag you have specified and have placed on order

There you have it. You are now on your way to becoming a expert in baghouse filter bags. If you’d like to expand your knowledge even further we can send one of our engineers to your facility to conduct a workshop custom fit for your equipment and staff.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for baghouse filter bags in various products range from our wide experience.

Advantages and Importance of Grain Drying

The drying of cereals could be a method known since ancient times that, over the decades, has skilled evolutions and changes. The grain drying treatment, that tried indispensable, continues to be carried out nowadays, in several and alternative ways. If done effectively, this method will deliver necessary advantages to farmers and farms. But in what way? And what benefits are we talking about, exactly?

The grain drying treatment, whether it’s carried out naturally or unnaturally, plays a basic role within the marketing of the product. However, the best benefits occur once the method is dispensed with specific and advanced drying systems, like mobile grain dryers and tower dryers.

Grain dryers of first generation were unlikely to adapt to hostile atmospheric condition, with the result that drying was usually not effective. Today, however, the foremost technologically advanced grain dryers will optimally satisfy any drying requirement, even with high humidity levels (i.e. 35%) and in environments with very low temperatures and fewer favourable conditions.

The main advantages of grain drying with these systems are:

Safer storage – By reducing the moisture content in the grains, the possibility of degradation or germination of the cereal is eliminated: therefore, it can be stored even for long periods in a safe manner maintaining the quality of the product.

Less molds and/or aflatoxins – The reduced water content also makes it possible to eliminate the risk of the onset of harmful agents such as molds or aflatoxins, which can damage the cereal and also represent a danger to human and animal health.

Less waste – Grain drying, eliminating the risks associated with the possible deterioration of the product, allows to significantly reduce the losses associated with numerous movements of the product, exposure to theft, birds and rodents: the greatest part of the harvested product will then be marketed, without significant losses;

More productivity and quality – Grain drying through a dryer allows to speed up the process, allowing greater flexibility and an increase in productivity: in a few hours it is possible to dry many tons of products, a process that would require several days with the traditional method. Owning a dryer means being independent in the treatment, which can be performed at any time and keeping the parameters that affect drying under control. Also, by eliminating the risks associated with product degradation, even the quality remains at best.

More value and profits – The flexibility gained by the farmer, combined with the benefit of greater security regarding the conservation and quality of the harvested cereals, offer the opportunity to sell the product at a higher price, following the most favourable periods for putting it on the market. In this way, profits also increase and they are maximized.

The advantages of grain drying are necessary and decisive for the success of a farm, particularly if carried out with systems specifically designed for this purpose, like grain dryers. To mention the five main advantages that may be obtained, we have: larger safety for storage, elimination of the onset of molds and aflatoxins, reduction of waste, higher product quality and productivity, increase and maximization of profits.

Kerone has been a specialist within the production of grain dryers for many years and continually pursues innovation and constant improvement. If you wish to get the benefits of grain drying directly, contact us: our team of specialists is at your disposal to assist you discover the proper resolution for your wants.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for drying technologies for grains in various products range from our wide experience.

Manufacturing Methods for Production of Pharmaceutical Tablet

A tablet is a pharmaceutical dosage form. It contains of a combination of active substances and excipients, generally in powder form, passed are compacted into a solid dose.


  1. Diluents, binders or granulating agents, glidents and lubricants to ensure efficient tableting;
  2. Disintegrates: to promote tablet break up in the digestive tract;
  3. Sweeteners or flavours: to enhance the taste;
  4. Polymer coating: it is applied to make the tablet smoother and easier to swallow, to control the release rate of the active ingredient, to make it more resistant to the environment.

There are three methods by which tablets are manufactured;

  • Wet granulation
  • Dry granulation
  • Direct compression

Manufacturing process depends on many factors, including the compression properties of the therapeutic agents, the particle size of the therapeutic agent, excipients and the chemical stability of the therapeutic agent throughout the producing method.

Wet Granulation

  • It is most commonly used method for the manufacturing of tablets.
  • Water is frequently used as the granulation fluid (and heat is employed to dry the formed granules), it is important to ensure that the therapeutic agent is chemically stable during the granulation process.
  • The wet granulation exhibit sufficient mechanical properties to be subsequently exposed to other unit operations, Eg: film coating.
  • Tablet quality is directly affected by the choice and concentration of binder and the type and volume of granulation fluid. Due to the number of unit operations to the required, the manufacture of tablets by wet granulation is not as efficient as other methods. Eg: direct compression.

Dry Granulation

  • When tablet ingredients are sensitive to moisture and unable to withstand elevated temperature during drying and when the tablet ingredient have insufficient cohesive properties, slugging may be used to form granules.
  • This technique is used in preparation of aspirin, aspirin combination, and acetophenetidin.

Excipients used in this method:

  • Diluents/ filler: anhydrous lactose/ lactose monohydrate, starch, dibasic calcium phosphate, and MCC
  • Disintegrants: Starch, MCC, Sodium starch glycolate, Croscarmellose sodium, Crospovidone.
  • Lubricants: Stearates (Mg. stearate, steric acid), Glyceryl fatty acid esters, polyoxyethylene stearates, SLS.
  • Glidants: Talc, Colloidal silicon dioxide.
  • Miscellaneous Excipients: Colours, sweetening agents, etc.

Advantages & Disadvantages:

  • This technique popularity has decreased in recent years, having been superseded by direct compression.
  • However both slugging and roller compaction are still employed in tablet manufacture.

Direct Compression

  • Wet granulation and dry granulation methods having series of unit operations, both time consuming and potentially costly.
  • Potentially more attractive option for the manufacture of tablets involves powder mixing and subsequent compression of the powder mix, thereby obviating the need for granulation. This process is called direct compression.
  • The mechanism of particle-particle interactions in tablets produced by direct compression are similar to those operative in tablets produced by dry granulation and roller compaction.

Manufacture of Tablets Steps:

  • Mixing of the therapeutic agents with the excipients
  • Granulation of the mixed powders (this is not performed in direct compression)
  • Mixing of the powders or granules with other excipients (mostly lubricants)
  • Compression into tablets
  • The details of each of these steps will vary depending on the manufacturing method used.

The selection of a tableting method depends on variety of things, including the chemical properties of the API similarly because the desired mechanical options of the finished tablets. Whereas heat-based granulation techniques are unsuitable for APIs with temperature sensitivities, and liquid- or foam-based processes may be harmful to water-sensitive APIs, these methods can provide many of the advantages of dry granulation, without the fragility of a dry-compressed tablet product.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for different methods of tablet manufacturing in various products range from our wide experience

Importance of Drying During Production

At a certain point, each production method encounters the problem of moisture. The causes of moisture will vary widely and therefore the consequences of moisture are usually terribly completely different. However, the answer continually comes all the way down to an equivalent thing: remove the maximum amount moisture as possible. Drying or blow-off solution will prevent a lot of your time, energy and cash.

Possible causes of moisture?

The causes of moisture formation will vary widely. Our expertise shows that these causes are often divided into 3 broad classes:

  1. Cooling – several product are cooled. Typically because the last step during a sterilization or pasteurization method. Water is usually used for this purpose, leaving water droplets on the product. For example: prepared meals, cans, pet food, other examples are extrusion of plastics or rubbers.
  2. Cleaning – After production, the product are usually cleansed, washed or rinsed. Once again, water droplets remain behind. For example: beer, jam, sauces, and soft drinks.
  3. Steam – To sleeve products, they are often placed in a steam tunnel. The excess water must be removed. For example: fruit juices.

Possible problems due to moisture?

  1. Contaminated environment – First of all, moisture contaminates the space in which the production process takes place. Moisture is difficult to control. Especially in places where hygiene is of great importance, (polluted) water can make the whole environment dirty and dangerous (slippery).
  2. Ink spill – Printing on damp products is not possible. Many products require a production date or an expiry date. As long as the product is still damp, the inkjet codes will run out and become illegible.
  3. Non-adhesive labels – Even if you want to stick labels on the products, this will not work as long as they are damp. The glue from the labels can only stick on completely dry surfaces.
  4. Damaged machines – After all, many (packaging) machines are not resistant to water. Wet products can leave moisture in your machine and cause it to break down faster.
  5. Failing control equipment – Production processes are often checked at different times and on different parameters (such as speed, weight, etc.). The cameras, metering cells and different equipment used for this purpose sometimes don’t perform properly once the product remains coated with water droplets. Or the equipment could sustain water damage.
  6. Mould formation – Food is often packed in plastic. If the product is still wet, the moisture evaporates and mould can form.
  7. Cracking cardboard – Another ordinarily used method of packaging is cardboard. Cardboard, too, isn’t resistant to water and often tears when it gets wet.

We at KERONE have a team of experts to help you with your need for drying technologies in various products range from our wide experience.